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Taxon: Viola tricolor L.

 
Genus: Viola
Family: Violaceae
Subfamily: Violoideae
Tribe: Violeae
Nomen number: 41789
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:935. 1753
Link to protologue:
Comment: non Viola tricolor hort. (= V. ×wittrockiana Gams)
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 22-Jan-1998 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 9 (4 active, 4 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental
  • Human food:
  • Medicines:
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (common in several countries)

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Iran (n.w.), Turkey
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation-Western Siberia [Western Siberia]

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslavia, Greece, Italy, Romania
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France, Spain


    Cultivated (also cult.)

    Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)

References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Bosser, J. M. et al., eds. 1976-. Flores des Mascareignes. Note: mentions
  3. Boulos, L. 1999-. Flora of Egypt
  4. Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45
  5. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959-. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  6. Czerepanov, S. K. 1995. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR) Cambridge University Press.
  7. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  8. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  9. Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage
  10. Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants Kampong Publications.
  11. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Viola+tricolor&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  12. Fu, Y. C. et al. 1977-. Flora intramongolica.
  13. Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ed. 2
  14. Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California
  15. Hinds, H. R. 2000. Flora of New Brunswick, ed. 2.
  16. Holm, L. et al. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds
  17. Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening 4:673.
  18. Iwatsuki, K. et al. 1993-. Flora of Japan.
  19. Jahandiez, E. & R. Maire. 1931-1941. Catalogue des plantes du Maroc.
  20. Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75
  21. Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934-1964. Flora SSSR.
  22. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  23. Magee, D. W. & H. E. Ahles. 1999. Flora of the Northeast. A manual of the vascular flora of New England and adjacent New York.
  24. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  25. Marticorena, C. & M. Quezada. 1985. Catálogo de la flora vascular de Chile.
  26. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  27. Moss, E. H. & J. G. Packer. 1983. Flora of Alberta, ed. 2.
  28. Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970-. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  29. Nauenburg, J. D. 1991. Taxonomie und Korrekturen zur Nomenklatur von Viola tricolor s.l. (Violaceae) in Mitteleuropa. Willdenowia 21:51-56.
  30. Ohio Flora Committee (E. L. Braun, T. S. Cooperrider, T. R. Fisher, J. J. Furlow). 1967-. The vascular flora of Ohio.
  31. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  32. Pignatti, S. 1982. Flora d'Italia.
  33. Pittier, H. F. et al. 1945-1947. Catálogo de la flora venezolana.
  34. Quézel, P. & S. Santa. 1962-1963. Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie.
  35. Radford, A. E. et al. 1964. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas.
  36. Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963-. Flora iranica.
  37. Scoggan, H. J. 1978-1979. The flora of Canada, 4 vol.
  38. Sharma, B. D. et al., eds. 1993-. Flora of India.
  39. Stace, C. 1995. New flora of the British Isles.
  40. Steenis, C. G. G. J. van, ed. 1948-. Flora malesiana.
  41. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964-1980. Flora europaea.
  42. Voss, E. 1972-. Michigan flora.
  43. Welsh, S. L. et al. 1993. A Utah flora.
  44. Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida
  45. Zuloaga, F. O. & O. Morrone, eds. 1996, 1999. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. I. Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Angiospermae (Monocotyledonae), II. Dicotyledonae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60, 74.

Check other web resources for Viola tricolor L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ICRA: International Cultivar Registration Authority (on-line resource). for Viola tricolor cultivars
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:


Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=41789. Accessed 17 August 2019.