Taxon: Viola tricolor L.

 
Genus: Viola
Family: Violaceae
  Subfamily: Violoideae
      Tribe: Violeae
Nomen number: 41789
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:935. 1753
Comment: non Viola tricolor hort. (= V. ×wittrockiana Gams)
Name Verified on: 22-Jan-1998 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 13-Mar-2017
Species priority site is: Ornamental Plant Germplasm Center (OPGC)
Accessions: 9 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Dict Gard)
  • Human food: vegetable (flowers as garnish fide Cornucopia)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (common in several countries fide Atlas WWeed)

Distributional Range:

    Native:

  • Asia-Temperate

    • Siberia: Russian Federation-Western Siberia - Western Siberia
    • Western Asia: Iran; Turkey
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Iceland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece; Italy; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Spain

  • Naturalized:

    . natzd. elsewhere

    Cultivated:

    . also cult.

References:

  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on www.skud.info) (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Bisset, N. G., ed. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals. A handbook for practice on a scientific basis. 1994 (Herbal Drugs)
  • Blumenthal, M., ed. The complete German Commission E monographs: therapeutic guide to herbal medicines. 1998 (German CommE Monog)
  • Bosser, J. M. et al., eds. Flores des Mascareignes. 1976- (F Mascar)
  • Boulos, L. Flora of Egypt. 1999- (F Egypt)
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (L Peru)
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. 1959- (F China)
  • Czerepanov, S. K. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR). 1995 (L USSR)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
  • Facciola, S. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants. 1990 (Cornucopia)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Fu, Y. C. et al. Flora intramongolica. 1977- (F InnMong)
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ed. 2. 1991 (Glea Cron ed2)
  • Grellin, J. K. & J. Philpott A reference guide to medicinal plants. 1990 (RefGuide MedPl)
  • Hickman, J. C., ed. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California. 1993 (F CalifJep)
  • Hinds, H. R. Flora of New Brunswick, ed. 2. 2000 (F New Brunswick)
  • Holm, L. et al. A geographical atlas of world weeds. 1979 (Atlas WWeed)
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard) 4:673.
  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. Flora of Japan. 1993- (F Japan)
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (L Ecuador)
  • Jahandiez, E. & R. Maire Catalogue des plantes du Maroc. 1931-1941 (L Maroc)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • Magee, D. W. & H. E. Ahles Flora of the Northeast. A manual of the vascular flora of New England and adjacent New York. 1999 (F NE US)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • Marticorena, C. & M. Quezada Catalogo de la flora vascular de Chile. 1985 (L Chile)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Moss, E. H. & J. G. Packer Flora of Alberta, ed. 2. 1983 (F Alberta)
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. Flora of [West] Pakistan. 1970- (F Pak)
  • Nauenburg, J. D. 1991. Taxonomie und Korrekturen zur Nomenklatur von Viola tricolor s.l. (Violaceae) in Mitteleuropa (Willdenowia) 21:51-56.
  • Ohio Flora Committee (E. L. Braun, T. S. Cooperrider, T. R. Fisher, J. J. Furlow) The vascular flora of Ohio. 1967- (F Ohio)
  • Peirce, A. The American Pharmaceutical Association practical guide to natural medicines. 1999 (Pract Guide Nat Med)
  • Pignatti, S. Flora d'Italia. 1982 (F Ital)
  • Pittier, H. F. et al. Catálogo de la flora venezolana. 1945-1947 (L Venez)
  • Quézel, P. & S. Santa Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie. 1962-1963 (F Alger)
  • Radford, A. E. et al. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. 1964 (F Carolin)
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. 1963- (F Iran)
  • Scoggan, H. J. The flora of Canada, 4 vol. 1978-1979 (F Canada)
  • Sharma, B. D. et al., eds. Flora of India. 1993- (F India)
  • Stace, C. New flora of the British Isles. 1995 (F BritStace)
  • Steenis, C. G. G. J. van, ed. Flora malesiana. 1948- (F Males)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Van Wyk, B.-E. & M. Wink Medicinal plants of the world. 2004 (Med Pl World)
  • Voss, E. Michigan flora. 1972- (F Mich)
  • Welsh, S. L. et al. A Utah flora. 1993 (F Utah ed2)
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Wunderlin, R. P. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. 1998 (F Florida)
  • Zuloaga, F. O. & O. Morrone, eds. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. I. Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Angiospermae (Monocotyledonae), II. Dicotyledonae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60, 74. 1996, 1999 (L Argent)

Check other web resources for Viola tricolor L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ICRA: International Cultivar Registration Authority (on-line resource). for Viola tricolor cultivars
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.

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