Taxon: Armoracia rusticana G. Gaertn. et al.

Genus: Armoracia
Family: Brassicaceae (alt.Cruciferae)
Tribe: Cardamineae
Nomen number: 4234
Place of publication: Oekon. Fl. Wetterau 2:426. 1800
Link to protologue:
Comment: since this name was originally based on Cochlearia rusticana Lam., this was an illegitimate, superfluous name (Melbourne ICN Art. 52), so there is no parenthetical authorship (Melbourne ICN Art. 58)
Name Verified on: 02-Apr-2012 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 20-Mar-2014
Species priority site is:
Accessions: 0 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

  • horseradish  (Source: World Econ Pl) - English
  • cran  (Source: Mansf Ency) - French
  • cranson  (Source: Dict Rehm) - French
  • mérédic  (Source: Mansf Ency) - French
  • raifort cran  (Source: Dict Rehm) - French
  • raifort sauvage  (Source: Mansf Ency) - French
  • Kren  (Source: Mansf Ency) - German
  • Meerrettich  (Source: Dict Rehm) - German
  • barba forte  (Source: Mansf Ency) - Italian
  • cren  (Source: Mansf Ency) - Italian
  • crenno  (Source: Mansf Ency) - Italian
  • seiyō-wasabi  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • uma-daikon  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • wasabi-daikon  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • rábano-picanto  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Portuguese
  • raiz-forte  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Portuguese
  • rábano picante  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Spanish
  • rábano rusticano  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Spanish
  • la gen shu  (Source: F ChinaEng) - Transcribed Chinese

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring (fide CultTropS)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of cabbage/kale (based on sterile hybrids with Brassica oleracea by protoplast fusion fide Biologia Pl 39:534, 536, 538. 1997)
  • Materials: chemicals (source of peroxidase used in biochemistry and immunology fide Pl Res SEAs 13:77. 1999)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide F USSR; V. Dorofeev, pers. comm. 1996; CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Kingsbury; Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Weed: (fide F NAmer)

Distributional Range:



  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Moldova

  • Naturalized

  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia
    • China: China Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning
    • Eastern Asia: Japan Hokkaido, Honshu
    • Middle Asia: Turkmenistan
    • Russian Far East: Russian Federation-Far East Far East
    • Siberia: Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia Eastern Siberia; Russian Federation-Western Siberia Western Siberia
  • Australasia

    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Belarus ; Estonia ; Latvia ; Lithuania ; Russian Federation-European part European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria ; Belgium ; Czech Republic ; Germany ; Hungary ; Netherlands ; Poland ; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark ; Finland ; Ireland ; Norway ; Sweden ; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania ; Bosnia and Herzegovina ; Bulgaria ; Croatia ; Greece ; Italy ; Macedonia ; Romania ; Serbia ; Slovenia ; Turkey Kirklareli
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Spain
  • Northern America

    • Eastern Canada: Canada New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States New Mexico
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States California, Utah
    • Western Canada: Canada British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan

  • Cultivated

  • Africa

    • Southern Africa: South Africa
  • Asia-Temperate

    • China: China
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Malesia: Indonesia ; Malaysia ; Philippines
  • Australasia

    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Europe

    • Middle Europe: Austria ; Belgium ; Germany
    • Northern Europe: Ireland
    • Southeastern Europe: Italy
  • Northern America

    • Canada ; United States


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