Taxon: Armoracia rusticana G. Gaertn. et al.

Genus: Armoracia
Family: Brassicaceae (alt.Cruciferae)
      Tribe: Cardamineae
Nomen number: 4234
Place of publication: Oekon. Fl. Wetterau 2:426. 1800
Comment: since this name was originally based on Cochlearia rusticana Lam., this was an illegitimate, superfluous name (Melbourne ICN Art. 52), so there is no parenthetical authorship (Melbourne ICN Art. 58)
Name Verified on: 02-Apr-2012 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 20-Mar-2014
Species priority site is:
Accessions: 0 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

  • horseradish  (Source: World Econ Pl) - English
  • cran  (Source: Mansf Ency) - French
  • cranson  (Source: Dict Rehm) - French
  • mérédic  (Source: Mansf Ency) - French
  • raifort cran  (Source: Dict Rehm) - French
  • raifort sauvage  (Source: Mansf Ency) - French
  • Kren  (Source: Mansf Ency) - German
  • Meerrettich  (Source: Dict Rehm) - German
  • barba forte  (Source: Mansf Ency) - Italian
  • cren  (Source: Mansf Ency) - Italian
  • crenno  (Source: Mansf Ency) - Italian
  • seiyō-wasabi  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • uma-daikon  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • wasabi-daikon  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • rábano-picanto  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Portuguese
  • raiz-forte  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Portuguese
  • rábano picante  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Spanish
  • rábano rusticano  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Spanish
  • la gen shu  (Source: F ChinaEng) - Transcribed Chinese

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring (fide CultTropS)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of cabbage/kale (based on sterile hybrids with Brassica oleracea by protoplast fusion fide Biologia Pl 39:534, 536, 538. 1997)
  • Materials: chemicals (source of peroxidase used in biochemistry and immunology fide Pl Res SEAs 13:77. 1999)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide F USSR; V. Dorofeev, pers. comm. 1996; CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Kingsbury; Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Weed: (fide F NAmer)

Distributional Range:


    . possible origin e. Europe


  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Moldova

  • Naturalized:

  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia
    • China: China - Hebei, - Heilongjiang, - Jiangsu, - Jilin, - Liaoning
    • Eastern Asia: Japan - Hokkaido, - Honshu
    • Middle Asia: Turkmenistan
    • Russian Far East: Russian Federation-Far East - Far East
    • Siberia: Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia - Eastern Siberia; Russian Federation-Western Siberia - Western Siberia
  • Australasia

    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy; Macedonia; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia; Turkey - Kirklareli
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Spain
  • Northern America

    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, - Nova Scotia, - Ontario, - Prince Edward Island, - Quebec
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, - Iowa, - Minnesota, - Missouri, - Nebraska, - North Dakota, - South Dakota, - Wisconsin
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, - Indiana, - Maine, - Massachusetts, - Michigan, - New Hampshire, - New Jersey, - New York, - Ohio, - Pennsylvania, - Rhode Island, - Vermont, - West Virginia
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, - Idaho, - Montana, - Oregon, - Washington, - Wyoming
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - North Carolina, - Tennessee, - Virginia
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - California, - Utah
    • Western Canada: Canada - British Columbia, - Manitoba, - Saskatchewan

  • Cultivated:

    • : Canada; United States
  • Africa

    • Southern Africa: South Africa
  • Asia-Temperate

    • China: China
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia; Philippines
  • Australasia

    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Europe

    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Germany
    • Northern Europe: Ireland
    • Southeastern Europe: Italy
  • Northern America

    • : Canada; United States


  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). (AgroAtlas)
  • Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. Flora of Libya. 1976- (F Libya)
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. Flora of New Zealand. 1961- (F NZeal)
  • Blumenthal, M., ed. The complete German Commission E monographs: therapeutic guide to herbal medicines. 1998 (German CommE Monog)
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. 1998 (Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Dorofeev, V. 1996. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • FNA Editorial Committee Flora of North America. 1993- (F NAmer)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Fosberg, F. R. 1965. Nomenclature of the horseradish (Cruciferae) (Baileya) 13:1-4.
  • Fosberg, F. R. 1966. The correct name of the horseradish (Cruciferae) (Baileya) 14:60.
  • Foster, S. & C. Hobbs A field guide to Western medicinal plants and herbs. 2002 (W Med Pl Herbs)
  • Foster, S. & J. A. Duke A field guide to medicinal plants: Eastern/Central North America, 2nd ed. 2000 (EastC Med Pl)
  • Grellin, J. K. & J. Philpott A reference guide to medicinal plants. 1990 (RefGuide MedPl)
  • Guzman, C. C. de & J. S. Siemonsma, eds. 1999. Spices (Pl Res SEAs) 13:76-80.
  • Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. Flora of Japan. 1993- (F Japan)
  • Jalas, J. & J. Suominen Atlas florae europaeae. 1972- (Atlas Eur)
  • Kingsbury, J. M. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. 1964 (Kingsbury)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • Mansfeld, R. Die Kulturpflanze, Beiheft 2. 1959 (Mansfeld)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Moerman, D. Native American ethnobotany, ed. 5. 1998 (Nat Amer Ethnobot)
  • Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource). (Can Poison Pl)
  • Navrátilová, B. et al. 1997. Construction of intergeneric somatic hybrids between Brassica oleracea and Armoracia rusticana Biol. Pl. 39:531-541.
  • Navrátilová, B. et al. 1997. Construction of intergeneric somatic hybrids between Brassica oleracea and Armoracia rusticana Biol. Pl. 39:531-541.
  • Peirce, A. The American Pharmaceutical Association practical guide to natural medicines. 1999 (Pract Guide Nat Med)
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Rehm, S. & G. Espig The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics. 1991 (CultTropS)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Van Wyk, B.-E. & M. Wink Medicinal plants of the world. 2004 (Med Pl World)
  • Warwick, S.I. et al. Part III. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization data (Guide Germ Brassica)
  • Warwick, S.I. et al. Part III. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization data (Guide Germ Brassica)
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)


Check other web resources for Armoracia rusticana G. Gaertn. et al. :