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Taxon: Alphitonia zizyphoides (Spreng.) A. Gray

Genus: Alphitonia
Family: Rhamnaceae
Nomen number: 450368
Place of publication: C. Wilkes, U.S. Expl. Exped., Phan. 15:278. 1854
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 08-May-2006 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 0 (0 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

  • toi  (Source: pers. comm.) - English
  • ndoi  (Source: F Viti) - Fijian
  • toi  (Source: F Viti) - New Zealand (Maori)

Economic Importance:

  • Fuels: fuelwood
  • Materials:
  • Medicines: folklore

Distributional Range:


    • SOUTH-CENTRAL PACIFIC: French Polynesia [Society Islands]
    • SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC: Fiji, Niue, Samoa, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna Islands


  1. Drake, D. R. et al. 1996. Rain forest vegetation of 'Eua Island, Kingdom of Tonga. New Zealand J. Bot. 34:65-77.
  2. Elevitch, C. R., ed. The traditional tree initiative: species profiles for Pacific Island agroforestry (on-line resource). URL: http://www.agroforestry.net/tti/Alphitonia-toi.pdf target='_blank' Note: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Holualoa, Hawai'i\; http://www.traditionaltree.org/
  3. Kellermann, J. 2011. Review of Rhamnaceae data for World Economic Plants, ed. 2. pers. comm.
  4. Smith, A. C. 1979-1991. Flora vitiensis nova.
  5. Webb, E. L. et al. 2006. Composition and structure of lowland rain-forest tree communities on Ta'u, American Samoa. Pacific Sci. 60:333-354.

Check other web resources for Alphitonia zizyphoides (Spreng.) A. Gray :

  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=450368. Accessed 16 July 2019.