Taxon: Borago officinalis L.

Genus: Borago
Family: Boraginaceae
Subfamily: Boraginoideae
Tribe: Boragineae
Subtribe: Boragininae
Nomen number: 7422
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:137. 1753
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 31-Mar-2012 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 31-Mar-2012
Species priority site is: Western Regional PI Station (W6)
Accessions: 3 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring (fide Ency CNatIn; Food Feed Crops US)
  • Bee plants: honey production (fide F Int Apico; Pulmonaria 84.)
  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Dict Gard; Hortus 3; Pulmonaria 84.)
  • Human food: potential as oil/fat (fide Mansf Ency)
  • Human food: vegetable (fide Mansf Ency)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide Ency CNatIn; CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2; Pulmonaria 83.)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (contain carcinogens fide H. Riedl, pers. comm. 1996)

Distributional Range:


  • Africa

    • Northern Africa: Algeria ; Libya ; Morocco ; Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Western Asia: Cyprus ; Lebanon ; Syria
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Belarus ; Latvia ; Lithuania ; Moldova
    • Northern Europe: Sweden
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania ; Croatia ; Greece ; Italy
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal ; Spain

  • Naturalized

  • Africa

    • Macaronesia: Portugal Azores, Madeira Islands; Spain Canary Islands
  • Australasia

    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Estonia ; Russian Federation-European part European part; Ukraine Krym
    • Middle Europe: Austria ; Czech Republic ; Germany ; Hungary ; Netherlands ; Poland ; Slovakia ; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Norway ; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Romania
  • Northern America

    • Mexico
    • Eastern Canada: Canada New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, Wisconsin
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States Connecticut, Maine, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States Montana, Oregon, Washington
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States Maryland, Tennessee, Virginia
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States California, Utah
    • Western Canada: Canada Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan
  • Southern America

    • Caribbean: Cuba ; Hispaniola ; Puerto Rico
    • Southern South America: Argentina ; Chile ; Uruguay
    • Western South America: Bolivia ; Ecuador ; Peru

  • Cultivated


  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & M. T. Strong Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98. 2012 (L West Indies)
  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). (AgroAtlas)
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. Flora of Libya. (F Libya)
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. Flora of New Zealand. (F NZeal)
  • Bennett, M. Pulmonarias and the Borage family. 2003 (Pulmonaria) 83-84.
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (L Peru)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. (F Turk)
  • Duke, J. A. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 1985 (CRC MedHerbs)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  • Eriksson, O. et al. Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 2. (L Macar ed2)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. (Glea Cron)
  • Gómez-Pompa, A. & V. Sosa, eds. Flora de Veracruz. (F Veracruz)
  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. Med-Checklist. (L Medit)
  • Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  • Hansen, A. & P. Sunding Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17. (L Macar ed4)
  • Hnatiuk, R. J. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11. (L Aust)
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares. (F ConoSur)
  • Izquierdo Z., I. et al., eds. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. 2004 (L Canarias)
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (L Ecuador)
  • Kartesz, J. T. North American plant atlas. The Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2011 (NAmer Pl Atlas)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. (F USSR)
  • Lazarides, M. & B. Hince CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia. 1993 (Econ Pl Aust)
  • Lems, K. Floristic botany of the Canary islands. (L Canary)
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. (Hortus 3)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Mouterde, P. Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie. (F Liban)
  • Ortega-Sada, J. L. Flora de interes apicola y polinizacion de cultivos. (F Int Apico)
  • Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  • Press, J. R. & M. J. Short, eds. Flora of Madeira. (F Madeira)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Riedl, H. 1996. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Silva, L. et al. Listagem da fauna e flora terrestres dos Açores. Lista des plantas vasculares (Pteridophyta e Spermatophyta). (L Azores)
  • St. John, H. List and summary of the flowering plants in the Hawaiian islands. 1973 (L Hawaii)
  • Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark Flora of Guatemala. (F Guat)
  • Stevens, W. D. et al., eds. Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85(1-3). (F Nicaragua)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. (F Eur)

Check other web resources for Borago officinalis L. :


  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seeds: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image