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Taxon: Theobroma bicolor Humb. & Bonpl.

 
Genus: Theobroma
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Byttnerioideae
Tribe: Theobromateae
Nomen number: 101884
Place of publication: Pl. aequinoct. 1:104, t. 30. 1806 ("1808")
Link to protologue:
Comment: despite the indication in TL-2 of Bonpland as the "Author of text" for this work, Bonpland is really only identified on the title page as the editor of a work jointly authored by both Humboldt and Bonpland, who thus have joint authorship of any nomenclatural novelties therein
Name Verified on: 07-Nov-1985 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 3 (1 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring
  • Human food: fruit (pulp is eaten)

Distributional Range:

    Cultivated

    Northern America
    • SOUTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Chiapas, Oaxaca]

    Southern America
    • CENTRAL AMERICA: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala
    • BRAZIL: Brazil [Amazonas, Pará (n.)]
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru


    Other (origin probably Central America)

References:

  1. Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & M. T. Strong. 2012. Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98
  2. Addison, G. & R. Tavares. 1952. Hybridization and grafting in species of Theobroma which occur in Amazonia. Evolution 6:381. Note: this study reported partial success in crosses of Theobroma cacao × T. bicolor obtaining one fruit with few sterile seed; the reciprocal cross was unsuccessful
  3. Balick, M. J. et al. 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize, with common names and uses. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 85
  4. Borrone, J. W. et al. 2007. The potential of the WRKY gene family for phylogenetic reconstruction: An example from the Malvaceae. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 44:1143, 1146, 1147.
  5. Cuatrecasas, J. 1964. Cacao and its allies: a taxonomic revision of the genus Theobroma. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 35:458.
  6. Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants Kampong Publications.
  7. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Theobroma+bicolor&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  8. Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource).
  9. IPGRI. New World Fruits Database (on-line resource).
  10. Macbride, J. F. et al., eds. 1936-. Flora of Peru Note: 1936-1971; new ser. 1980-
  11. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  12. Rehm, S. & G. Espig. 1991. The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics
  13. Silva S., C. R. & A. Figueira. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of Theobroma (Sterculiaceae) based on Kunitz-like trypsin inhibitor sequences. Pl. Syst. Evol. 250:93-104.
  14. Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1946-1976. Flora of Guatemala.
  15. Stevens, W. D. et al., eds. 2001. Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85(1-3).
  16. Vásquez Martínez, R. et al. 1997. Flórula de las Reservas Biológicas de Iquitos, Perú: Allpahuayo-Mishana, Explornapo Camp, Explorama Lodge. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63:703.
  17. Whitlock, B. A. & D. A. Baum. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Theobroma and Herrania (Sterculiaceae) based on sequences of the nuclear gene Vicilin. Syst. Bot. 24:133, 134. URL: www.aspt.net/systematic-botany
  18. Woodson, R. E. & R. W. Schery, eds. 1943-1980. Flora of Panama.
  19. 1961. Webster's third new international dictionary.

Check other web resources for Theobroma bicolor Humb. & Bonpl. :

  • New World Fruits Database: Online database from Bioversity International
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=101884. Accessed 19 September 2019.