Genus: Theobroma L.

Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Byttnerioideae
Tribe: Theobromateae
Alternate family(ies): Sterculiaceae
Genus number: 12064
Last updated: 07-Feb-2013
Accession Count: 1142 (301 active, 221 available) in National Plant Germplasm System
Comments: all accepted species are in GRIN

List of Species Records in GRIN


  1. Borrone, J. W. et al. 2007. The potential of the WRKY gene family for phylogenetic reconstruction: An example from the Malvaceae. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 44:1141-1154.
  2. Cuatrecasas, J. 1964. Cacao and its allies: a taxonomic revision of the genus Theobroma. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 35:379-614.
  3. Motamayor, J. C. et al. 2002. Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas. Heredity 89:380-386.
  4. Motamayor, J. C. et al. 2003. Cacao domestication II: progenitor germplasm of the Trinitario cacao cultivar. Heredity 91:322-330.
  5. Richardson, J. E. et al. 2015. The age of chocolate: a diversification history of Theobroma and Malvaceae. Frontiers Ecol. Environm. 3: Art. 120.
  6. Silva S., C. R. & A. Figueira. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of Theobroma (Sterculiaceae) based on Kunitz-like trypsin inhibitor sequences. Pl. Syst. Evol. 250:93-104.
  7. Whitlock, B. A. & D. A. Baum. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Theobroma and Herrania (Sterculiaceae) based on sequences of the nuclear gene Vicilin. Syst. Bot. 24:128-138. URL:

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Synonyms (=), probable synonyms (=~), and possible synonyms (~):


  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Check Index Nominum Genericorum for Theobroma
Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: Accessed 15 August 2020.