Taxon: Theobroma cacao L.

 
Genus: Theobroma
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Byttnerioideae
Tribe: Theobromateae
Nomen number: 101885
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:782. 1753
Link to protologue:
Typification:
Name Verified on: 07-Nov-1985 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 19-Sep-2017
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Miami (MIA)
Accessions: 259 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Synonyms:

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring ()
  • Human food: beverage base ()
  • Human food: fruit (seeds)
  • Human food: oil/fat ()
  • Materials: lipids ()
  • Medicines: folklore ()
  • Medicines: folklore ()
  • Medicines: source of theobromine ()
  • Medicines: source of theobromine ()
  • Medicines: source of theobromine ()
  • Social: religious/secular (chocolates are given to friends/lovers on Valentine's Day)
  • Social: stimulant ()

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Northern America
    • SOUTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Chiapas (s.), Tabasco]

    Southern America
    • CENTRAL AMERICA: Belize, Guatemala
    • NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname
    • BRAZIL: Brazil, [Amazonas] Brazil (n.w.) [Amazonas]
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Colombia, Peru, [Loreto] Peru [Loreto]


    Cultivated (widely cult.)

References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on www.skud.info). 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  2. Argout, X. et al. 2010. The genome of Theobroma cacao Nat. Genet. 43:101-109.
  3. Backer, C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, Jr. Flora of Java. (F Java)
  4. Bartley, B. G. D. 2005. The genetic diversity of cacao and its utilization 341 pp.
  5. Cuatrecasas, J. 1964. Cacao and its allies: a taxonomic revision of the genus Theobroma Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 35:495.
  6. Dorr, L. J. 2011. Review of Malvaceae sensu lato data for World Economic Plants, ed. 2 (pers. comm.)
  7. Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  8. Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
  9. Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  10. Facciola, S. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants. 1990 (Cornucopia)
  11. Farnsworth, N. R. & D. D. Soejarto Global importance of medicinal plants (unpublished draft manuscript rev. 23, 1988) (Import Medicinal Pl)
  12. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  13. Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  14. IPGRI New World Fruits Database (on-line resource). (New World Fruits)
  15. Jardín Botánico Nacional Flora de la República de Cuba. 1998- (F Cuba)
  16. Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn)
  17. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. (Hortus 3)
  18. Macbride, J. F. et al., eds. Flora of Peru. 1936-1971; new ser. 1980- (F Peru)
  19. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  20. McVaugh, R. Flora Novo-Galiciana. (F NGalicia)
  21. Motamayor, J. C. et al. 2002. Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas (Heredity) 89:380-386.
  22. Motamayor, J. C. et al. 2008. Geographic and genetic population differentiation of the Amazonian chocolate tree (Theobroma cacao L.) (PloS One) 3:e3311
  23. Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  24. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  25. Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  26. Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  27. Royen, P. van et al. Manual of the forest trees of Papua and New Guinea. (Trees New Guinea)
  28. Silva S., C. R. & A. Figueira 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of Theobroma (Sterculiaceae) based on Kunitz-like trypsin inhibitor sequences Pl. Syst. Evol. 250:93-104.
  29. Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark Flora of Guatemala. (F Guat)
  30. Thomas, E. et al. 2012. Present spatial diversity patterns of Theobroma cacao L. in the Neotropics reflect genetic differentiation in Pleistocene refugia followed by human-influenced dispersal (PloS One) 7(10):e47676. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0047676
  31. Vossen, H. A. M. van der & M. Wessel, eds. 2000. Stimulants (Pl Res SEAs) 16:113.
  32. Westphal, E. & P. C. M. Jansen, eds. 1989. A selection (Pl Res SEAs) A:265.
  33. Whitlock, B. A. & D. A. Baum 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Theobroma and Herrania (Sterculiaceae) based on sequences of the nuclear gene Vicilin Syst. Bot. 24:128-138.
  34. Woodson, R. E. & R. W. Schery, eds. Flora of Panama. (F Panama)

Check other web resources for Theobroma cacao L. :

Images:

  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=101885. Accessed 25 April 2018.