Taxon: Theobroma cacao L.

 
Genus: Theobroma
Family: Malvaceae
  Subfamily: Byttnerioideae
      Tribe: Theobromateae
Nomen number: 101885
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:782. 1753
Name Verified on: 07-Nov-1985 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 19-Nov-1996
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Miami (MIA)
Accessions: 1085 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring (fide Cornucopia)
  • Human food: beverage base (fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Human food: fruit (seeds fide Cuatrecasas 1964)
  • Human food: oil/fat (fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Materials: lipids (fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Medicines: source of theobromine (fide Import Medicinal Pl; CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Social: religious/secular (chocolates are given to friends/lovers on Valentine's Day; fide Pl Res SEAs 16:113. 2000)
  • Social: stimulant (fide Pl Res SEAs 16:113. 2000)

Distributional Range:

    Native:

  • Northern America

    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Chiapas, - Tabasco
  • Southern America

    • Brazil: Brazil, - Amazonas
    • Central America: Belize; Guatemala
    • Northern South America: French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname
    • Western South America: Colombia; Peru, - Loreto

  • Cultivated:

    . widely cult.

References:

  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on www.skud.info). 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Argout, X. et al. 2010. The genome of Theobroma cacao Nat. Genet. 43:101-109.
  • Backer, C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, Jr. Flora of Java. 1963-1968 (F Java)
  • Bartley, B. G. D. 2005. The genetic diversity of cacao and its utilization 341 pp.
  • Blumenthal, M., ed. The complete German Commission E monographs: therapeutic guide to herbal medicines. 1998 (German CommE Monog)
  • Cuatrecasas, J. 1964. Cacao and its allies: a taxonomic revision of the genus Theobroma Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 35:495.
  • Dorr, L. J. 2011. Review of Malvaceae sensu lato data for World Economic Plants, ed. 2 (pers. comm.)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  • Facciola, S. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants. 1990 (Cornucopia)
  • Farnsworth, N. R. & D. D. Soejarto Global importance of medicinal plants (unpublished draft manuscript rev. 23, 1988) (Import Medicinal Pl)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Foster, S. & V. E. Tyler Tyler's honest herbal: a sensible guide to the use of herbs and related remedies, ed. 4. 1999 (Tyler Herbal)
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • IPGRI New World Fruits Database (on-line resource). (New World Fruits)
  • Janick, J. & J. Simon, eds. Advances in new crops. 1990 (Adv New Crops)
  • Jardín Botánico Nacional Flora de la República de Cuba. 1998- (F Cuba)
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • Macbride, J. F. et al., eds. Flora of Peru. 1936-1971; new ser. 1980- (F Peru)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • McVaugh, R. Flora Novo-Galiciana. 1983- (F NGalicia)
  • Motamayor, J. C. et al. 2002. Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas (Heredity) 89:380-386.
  • Motamayor, J. C. et al. 2002. Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas (Heredity) 89:380-386.
  • Motamayor, J. C. et al. 2008. Geographic and genetic population differentiation of the Amazonian chocolate tree (Theobroma cacao L.) (PloS One) 3:e3311
  • Motamayor, J. C. et al. 2008. Geographic and genetic population differentiation of the Amazonian chocolate tree (Theobroma cacao L.) (PloS One) 3:e3311
  • Núñez Meléndez, E. Plantas medicinales de Puerto Rico: Folklore y fundamentos científicos. 1982 (Pl Med PR)
  • Peirce, A. The American Pharmaceutical Association practical guide to natural medicines. 1999 (Pract Guide Nat Med)
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Royen, P. van et al. Manual of the forest trees of Papua and New Guinea. 1964-1970 (Trees New Guinea)
  • Silva S., C. R. & A. Figueira 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of Theobroma (Sterculiaceae) based on Kunitz-like trypsin inhibitor sequences Pl. Syst. Evol. 250:93-104.
  • Silva S., C. R. & A. Figueira 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of Theobroma (Sterculiaceae) based on Kunitz-like trypsin inhibitor sequences Pl. Syst. Evol. 250:93-104.
  • Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark Flora of Guatemala. 1946-1976 (F Guat)
  • Thomas, E. et al. 2012. Present spatial diversity patterns of Theobroma cacao L. in the Neotropics reflect genetic differentiation in Pleistocene refugia followed by human-influenced dispersal (PloS One) 7(10):e47676. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0047676
  • Vossen, H. A. M. van der & M. Wessel, eds. 2000. Stimulants (Pl Res SEAs) 16:113.
  • Westphal, E. & P. C. M. Jansen, eds. 1989. A selection (Pl Res SEAs) A:265.
  • Whitlock, B. A. & D. A. Baum 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Theobroma and Herrania (Sterculiaceae) based on sequences of the nuclear gene Vicilin Syst. Bot. 24:128-138.
  • Whitlock, B. A. & D. A. Baum 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Theobroma and Herrania (Sterculiaceae) based on sequences of the nuclear gene Vicilin Syst. Bot. 24:128-138.
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Woodson, R. E. & R. W. Schery, eds. Flora of Panama. 1943-1980 (F Panama)

Synonyms:

Check other web resources for Theobroma cacao L. :

Images:

  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image