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Taxon: Theobroma cacao L.

 
Genus: Theobroma
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Byttnerioideae
Tribe: Theobromateae
Nomen number: 101885
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:782. 1753
Link to protologue: https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/358803
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 07-Nov-1985 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 1117 (291 active, 225 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring
  • Human food: fruit (seeds) oil/fat
  • Materials:
  • Medicines: folklore; source of theobromine; source of theobromine; source of theobromine
  • Social: stimulant; stimulant

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Northern America
    • SOUTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Chiapas (s.), Tabasco]

    Southern America
    • CENTRAL AMERICA: Belize, Guatemala
    • NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname
    • BRAZIL: Brazil, [Amazonas] Brazil (n.w.) [Amazonas]
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Colombia, Peru, [Loreto] Peru [Loreto]


    Cultivated (widely cult.)

References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Argout, X. et al. 2010. The genome of Theobroma cacao. Nat. Genet. 43:101-109.
  3. Backer, C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, Jr. 1963-1968. Flora of Java.
  4. Bartley, B. G. D. 2005. The genetic diversity of cacao and its utilization. 341 pp.
  5. Cuatrecasas, J. 1964. Cacao and its allies: a taxonomic revision of the genus Theobroma. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 35:495.
  6. Dorr, L. J. 2011. Review of Malvaceae sensu lato data for World Economic Plants, ed. 2. pers. comm.
  7. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  8. Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage
  9. Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen
  10. Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants Kampong Publications.
  11. Farnsworth, N. R. & D. D. Soejarto. 1988. Global importance of medicinal plants (unpublished draft manuscript rev. 23)
  12. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Theobroma+cacao&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  13. Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. Note: re. Brazilian common names
  14. IPGRI. New World Fruits Database (on-line resource).
  15. Jardín Botánico Nacional. 1998-. Flora de la República de Cuba
  16. Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2
  17. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  18. Macbride, J. F. et al., eds. 1936-. Flora of Peru Note: 1936-1971; new ser. 1980-
  19. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  20. McVaugh, R. 1983-. Flora Novo-Galiciana.
  21. Motamayor, J. C. et al. 2002. Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas. Heredity 89:380-386.
  22. Motamayor, J. C. et al. 2008. Geographic and genetic population differentiation of the Amazonian chocolate tree (Theobroma cacao L.). PLoS One 3:e3311
  23. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  24. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  25. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  26. Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. Note: re. German common names
  27. Royen, P. van et al. 1964-1970. Manual of the forest trees of Papua and New Guinea.
  28. Silva S., C. R. & A. Figueira. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of Theobroma (Sterculiaceae) based on Kunitz-like trypsin inhibitor sequences. Pl. Syst. Evol. 250:93-104.
  29. Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1946-1976. Flora of Guatemala.
  30. Thomas, E. et al. 2012. Present spatial diversity patterns of Theobroma cacao L. in the Neotropics reflect genetic differentiation in Pleistocene refugia followed by human-influenced dispersal. PLoS One 7(10):e47676. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047676
  31. Vossen, H. A. M. van der & M. Wessel, eds. 2000. Stimulants. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 16:113.
  32. Westphal, E. & P. C. M. Jansen, eds. 1989. A selection. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) A:265.
  33. Whitlock, B. A. & D. A. Baum. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Theobroma and Herrania (Sterculiaceae) based on sequences of the nuclear gene Vicilin. Syst. Bot. 24:128-138. URL: www.aspt.net/systematic-botany
  34. Woodson, R. E. & R. W. Schery, eds. 1943-1980. Flora of Panama.

Check other web resources for Theobroma cacao L. :

  • New World Fruits Database: Online database from Bioversity International
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:

  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=101885. Accessed 18 August 2019.