Jump to: Common NamesEconomic ImportanceDistributional RangeReferencesOther Web References

Taxon: Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) K. Schum.

Genus: Theobroma
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Byttnerioideae
Tribe: Theobromateae
Nomen number: 101891
Place of publication: C. F. P. von Martius, Fl. bras. 12(3):76, t. 8. 1886
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 07-Nov-1985 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 7 (2 active, 1 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring
  • Human food:
  • Materials:
  • Medicines: folklore

Distributional Range:


    Southern America
    • BRAZIL: Brazil [Acre (w.), Amazonas, Pará (s.)]


    Southern America
    • BRAZIL: Brazil (also cult.)
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Colombia, [Caquetá] Ecuador, Peru [Loreto]


  1. Alves, R. M. et al. 2007. High levels of genetic divergence and inbreeding in populations of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum). Tree Genet. Genomes 3:289-298.
  2. Arkcoll, D. B. & C. R. Clemenet. 1989. Potential new food crops from the Amazon. New crops for food and industry 156, 159.
  3. Borrone, J. W. et al. 2007. The potential of the WRKY gene family for phylogenetic reconstruction: An example from the Malvaceae. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 44:1143, 1146, 1147.
  4. Clement, C. R. et al. 2010. Origin and domestication of native Amazonian crops. Diversity 2:72-106.
  5. Cuatrecasas, J. 1964. Cacao and its allies: a taxonomic revision of the genus Theobroma. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 35:552.
  6. Dantas, L. G. & M. Guerra. 2009. Chromatin differentiation between Theobroma cacao L. and T. grandiflorum Schum. Genet. Molec. Biol. 33:94-98.
  7. Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants Kampong Publications.
  8. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Theobroma+grandiflorum&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  9. Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource).
  10. Hernández L., C. & M. S. Hernández G. 2012. Growth and development of the cupuacu fruit (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. Ex Spreng.) Schum.) in the western colombian Amazon. Agron. Colomb. 30:95-102.
  11. IPGRI. New World Fruits Database (on-line resource).
  12. Mabberley, D. J. 2008. Mabberley's plant-book: a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses, ed. 3 845. Note: re. substitute for cocoa butter
  13. Macbride, J. F. et al., eds. 1936-. Flora of Peru Note: 1936-1971; new ser. 1980-
  14. Martinson, V. A. 1966. Hybridization of cacao and Theobroma grandiflora. J. Heredity 57:134-136.
  15. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  16. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  17. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  18. Rehm, S. & G. Espig. 1991. The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics
  19. Silva S., C. R. & A. Figueira. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of Theobroma (Sterculiaceae) based on Kunitz-like trypsin inhibitor sequences. Pl. Syst. Evol. 250:94, 99, 100, 101.
  20. Silva S., C. R. et al. 2004. Description of Amazonian Theobroma L. collections, species identification, and characterization of interspecific hybrids. Acta Bot. Brasil. 18:333-341.
  21. Smith, N. J. H. et al. 1992. Tropical forests and their crops. 68-75.
  22. Vásquez Martínez, R. et al. 1997. Flórula de las Reservas Biológicas de Iquitos, Perú: Allpahuayo-Mishana, Explornapo Camp, Explorama Lodge. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63:703. Note: cultivated
  23. Venturieri, G. A. 2011. Flowering levels, harvest season and yields of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum). Acta Amazon. 41:143-152.
  24. Villachica, H. 1996. Frutales y hortalizas promisorios de la amazonia. Tratado de Cooperacion Amazonica. 44:103-112.

Check other web resources for Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) K. Schum. :

  • New World Fruits Database: Online database from Bioversity International
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=101891. Accessed 5 July 2020.