Taxon: Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) K. Schum.

Genus: Theobroma
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Byttnerioideae
Tribe: Theobromateae
Nomen number: 101891
Place of publication: C. F. P. von Martius, Fl. bras. 12(3):76, t. 8. 1886
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 07-Nov-1985 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 26-Jan-2018
Species priority site is:
Accessions: 2 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring ()
  • Human food: beverage base ()
  • Gene sources: potential for natural fruit abscission in cacao (fide Wild Crop Rel Pl Orn 13:287. 2011)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of cacao (based on a successful attempt of obtaining hybrid plants of unknown fertility fide J Heredity 57:135. 1966)
  • Materials: lipids (as a substitute for cocoa butter)
  • Medicines: folklore ()

Distributional Range:


    Southern America
    • BRAZIL: Brazil [Acre (w.), Amazonas, Para (s.)]


    Southern America
    • BRAZIL: Brazil (also cult.)
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Colombia, [Caqueta] Ecuador, Peru [Loreto]


  1. Alves, R. M. et al. 2007. High levels of genetic divergence and inbreeding in populations of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) Tree Genet. Genomes 3:289-298.
  2. Arkcoll, D. B. & C. R. Clemenet 1989. Potential new food crops from the Amazon (New Crops Food Ind) 156, 159.
  3. Borrone, J. W. et al. 2007. The potential of the WRKY gene family for phylogenetic reconstruction: An example from the Malvaceae Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 44:1143, 1146, 1147.
  4. Clement, C. R. et al. 2010. Origin and domestication of native Amazonian crops (Diversity) 2:72-106.
  5. Cuatrecasas, J. 1964. Cacao and its allies: a taxonomic revision of the genus Theobroma Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 35:552.
  6. Dantas, L. G. & M. Guerra 2009. Chromatin differentiation between Theobroma cacao L. and T. grandiflorum Schum Genet. Molec. Biol. 33:94-98.
  7. Facciola, S. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants. 1990 (Cornucopia)
  8. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  9. Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource). (L Brasil Online)
  10. Hernández L., C. & M. S. Hernández G. 2012. Growth and development of the cupuacu fruit (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. Ex Spreng.) Schum.) in the western colombian Amazon Agron. Colomb. 30:95-102.
  11. IPGRI New World Fruits Database (on-line resource). (New World Fruits)
  12. Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley's plant-book: a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses, third edition. 2008 (Mabberleys Pl Book) 845.
  13. Macbride, J. F. et al., eds. Flora of Peru. 1936-1971; new ser. 1980- (F Peru)
  14. Martinson, V. A. 1966. Hybridization of cacao and Theobroma grandiflora J. Heredity 57:134-136.
  15. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  16. Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  17. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  18. Rehm, S. & G. Espig The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics. 1991 (CultTropS)
  19. Silva S., C. R. & A. Figueira 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of Theobroma (Sterculiaceae) based on Kunitz-like trypsin inhibitor sequences Pl. Syst. Evol. 250:94, 99, 100, 101.
  20. Silva S., C. R. et al. 2004. Description of Amazonian Theobroma L. collections, species identification, and characterization of interspecific hybrids Acta Bot. Brasil. 18:333-341.
  21. Smith, N. J. H. et al. 1992. Tropical forests and their crops 68-75.
  22. Vásquez Martínez, R. et al. 1997. Flórula de las Reservas Biológicas de Iquitos, Perú: Allpahuayo-Mishana, Explornapo Camp, Explorama Lodge Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63:703.
  23. Venturieri, G. A. 2011. Flowering levels, harvest season and yields of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) Acta Amazon. 41:143-152.
  24. Villachica, H. 1996. Frutales y hortalizas promisorios de la amazonia (CoopAmaz) 44:103-112.
  25. Zhang, D. et al. 2011. Theobroma (Wild Crop Rel Pl Orn) 13:286-288.

Check other web resources for Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) K. Schum. :

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: Accessed 19 June 2018.