Taxon: Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) K. Schum.

Genus: Theobroma
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Byttnerioideae
Tribe: Theobromateae
Nomen number: 101891
Place of publication: C. F. P. von Martius, Fl. bras. 12(3):76, t. 8. 1886
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 07-Nov-1985 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 26-Jan-2018
Species priority site is:
Accessions: 2 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring (fide CultTropS)
  • Human food: beverage base (fide CoopAmaz 44:111.)
  • Gene sources: potential for natural fruit abscission in cacao (fide Wild Crop Rel Pl Orn 13:287. 2011)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of cacao (based on a successful attempt of obtaining hybrid plants of unknown fertility fide J Heredity 57:135. 1966)
  • Materials: lipids (as a substitute for cocoa butter fide Mabberleys Pl Book)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide Herbs Commerce ed2)

Distributional Range:


  • Southern America

    • Brazil: Brazil Acre, Amazonas, Para

  • Cultivated

  • Southern America

    • Brazil: Brazil
    • Western South America: Colombia Caqueta; Ecuador ; Peru Loreto


  • Alves, R. M. et al. 2007. High levels of genetic divergence and inbreeding in populations of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) Tree Genet. Genomes 3:289-298.
  • Arkcoll, D. B. & C. R. Clemenet 1989. Potential new food crops from the Amazon (New Crops Food Ind) 156, 159.
  • Borrone, J. W. et al. 2007. The potential of the WRKY gene family for phylogenetic reconstruction: An example from the Malvaceae Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 44:1143, 1146, 1147.
  • Clement, C. R. et al. 2010. Origin and domestication of native Amazonian crops (Diversity) 2:72-106.
  • Cuatrecasas, J. 1964. Cacao and its allies: a taxonomic revision of the genus Theobroma Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 35:552.
  • Dantas, L. G. & M. Guerra 2009. Chromatin differentiation between Theobroma cacao L. and T. grandiflorum Schum Genet. Molec. Biol. 33:94-98.
  • Facciola, S. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants. 1990 (Cornucopia)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource). (L Brasil Online)
  • Hernández L., C. & M. S. Hernández G. 2012. Growth and development of the cupuacu fruit (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. Ex Spreng.) Schum.) in the western colombian Amazon Agron. Colomb. 30:95-102.
  • IPGRI New World Fruits Database (on-line resource). (New World Fruits)
  • Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley's plant-book: a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses, third edition. 2008 (Mabberleys Pl Book) 845.
  • Macbride, J. F. et al., eds. Flora of Peru. 1936-1971; new ser. 1980- (F Peru)
  • Martinson, V. A. 1966. Hybridization of cacao and Theobroma grandiflora J. Heredity 57:134-136.
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Rehm, S. & G. Espig The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics. 1991 (CultTropS)
  • Silva S., C. R. & A. Figueira 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of Theobroma (Sterculiaceae) based on Kunitz-like trypsin inhibitor sequences Pl. Syst. Evol. 250:94, 99, 100, 101.
  • Silva S., C. R. et al. 2004. Description of Amazonian Theobroma L. collections, species identification, and characterization of interspecific hybrids Acta Bot. Brasil. 18:333-341.
  • Smith, N. J. H. et al. 1992. Tropical forests and their crops 68-75.
  • Vásquez Martínez, R. et al. 1997. Flórula de las Reservas Biológicas de Iquitos, Perú: Allpahuayo-Mishana, Explornapo Camp, Explorama Lodge Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63:703.
  • Venturieri, G. A. 2011. Flowering levels, harvest season and yields of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) Acta Amazon. 41:143-152.
  • Villachica, H. 1996. Frutales y hortalizas promisorios de la amazonia (CoopAmaz) 44:103-112.
  • Zhang, D. et al. 2011. Theobroma (Wild Crop Rel Pl Orn) 13:286-288.

Check other web resources for Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) K. Schum. :