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Taxon: Cichorium intybus L.

 
Genus: Cichorium
Family: Asteraceae (alt.Compositae)
Subfamily: Cichorioideae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Subtribe: Cichoriinae
Nomen number: 10543
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:813. 1753
Link to protologue:
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 21-Jun-2012 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 197 (169 active, 139 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: dietary fiber (source of fructan) flavoring
  • Human food:
  • Medicines: folklore
  • Vertebrate poisons:
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide Geigy Weed Tables. 1968)

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Tunisia

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia, [Eastern Siberia] Russian Federation-Western Siberia [Western Siberia]
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India, [Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab] Pakistan

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Denmark, Sweden, United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (incl. Crete), Italy (incl. Sicily), Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Corsica), Spain (incl. Baleares)


    Cultivated



    Africa
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Sudan

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India
    • INDO-CHINA: Myanmar

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Denmark, United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Russian Federation-European part [European part]
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Italy, Romania
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France, Spain

    Northern America
    • Canada, United States


    Adventive

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Finland


    Naturalized

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Portugal [Azores]
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Morocco
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Eritrea, Ethiopia
    • WEST-CENTRAL TROPICAL AFRICA: Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: Lesotho, South Africa

    Asia-Temperate
    • ARABIAN PENINSULA: Oman
    • CHINA: China
    • EASTERN ASIA: Taiwan

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Ireland, Norway
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Moldova
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: Portugal

    Northern America
    • EASTERN CANADA: Canada, [Québec, Nova Scotia, Ontario, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador] St. Pierre and Miquelon
    • WESTERN CANADA: Canada [Saskatchewan, Alberta, Manitoba, British Columbia]
    • NORTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont]
    • NORTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri]
    • SOUTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Arkansas, North Carolina]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [Texas]
    • SOUTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [California, Nevada, Utah]

    Southern America
    • NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Venezuela [Tachira]
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina, Chile, Uruguay


    Other (exact native range obscure)

References:

  1. Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). URL: http://www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/related/Cichorium_intybus/ target='_blank'
  2. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  3. Allan, H. H. B. et al. 1961-. Flora of New Zealand.
  4. Blervacq, A. S. et al. 1995. First divisions of somatic embryogenic cells in Cichorium hybrid "474". Protoplasma 186:163?168.
  5. CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland. 1974. The CIBA-GEIGY Weed Tables
  6. Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson. 1998. Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning
  7. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  8. Demilly, D. et al. 2001. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 7 Note: GEVES-SNES, Beaucouzé, France
  9. Desprez, B. F. et al. 1994. Genetique et amelioration de la chicoree industrielle (Genetics and breeding of industrial chicory). Compt. Rend. Acad. Agric. France 80(7):47-62.
  10. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  11. Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage
  12. Encke, F. et al. 1993. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 14. Auflage
  13. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  14. FNA Editorial Committee. 1993-. Flora of North America.
  15. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Cichorium+intybus&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  16. Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14
  17. Ghazanfar, S. A. 1992. An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of Oman. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2
  18. Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada.
  19. Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6
  20. Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards. 1989-. Flora of Ethiopia Note: Eritrea added in 2000
  21. Hnatiuk, R. J. 1990. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11.
  22. Hokche, O. et al. 2008. Nuevo catálogo de la flora vascular de Venezola.
  23. Holm, L. et al. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds
  24. Hu, S.-Y. 1970. Compositae of China. 48.
  25. Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening
  26. Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource).
  27. Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares.
  28. International Seed Testing Association. 1982. A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2.
  29. Jardin botanique national de Belgique. 1967-. Flore du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi (Flore d'Afrique centrale).
  30. John, P. 1996. Control of fructan metabolism in the Compositae. Compositae: biology and utilization. 2:111-119.
  31. Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75
  32. Kiers, A. M. et al. 2000. A search for diagnostic AFLP markers in Cichorium species with emphasis on endive and chicory cultivar groups. Genome 43:470-476.
  33. Kiers, A. M. 2000. Endive, chicory, and their wild relatives. A systematic and phylogenetic study of Cichorium (Asteraceae). Gorteria supp. 5:61-65.
  34. Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934-1964. Flora SSSR.
  35. Kunkel, G. 1984. Plants for human consumption
  36. Lazarides, M. & B. Hince. 1993. CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia
  37. Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2 161-162.
  38. Li, H. L. et al., eds. 1975-1979. Flora of Taiwan.
  39. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  40. Mansfeld, R. 1959. Die Kulturpflanze, Beiheft 2. Note: = Cichorium intybus var. foliosum
  41. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  42. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  43. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  44. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  45. Radford, A. E. et al., eds. 1980-. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States.
  46. Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963-. Flora iranica.
  47. Rehm, S. & G. Espig. 1991. The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics
  48. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  49. Sell, P. & G. Murrell. 1996-. Flora of Great Britain and Ireland.
  50. Sharma, B. D. et al., eds. 1993-. Flora of India.
  51. Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1946-1976. Flora of Guatemala.
  52. Stewart, R. 1972. An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of West Pakistan and Kashmir
  53. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964-1980. Flora europaea.
  54. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  55. 2018. Mid-Atlantic invasive plant species (on-line resource)

Check other web resources for Cichorium intybus L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Euro+Med Plantbase: Information Resource for Euro-Mediterranean Plant Diversity
  • Flora of North America: Collaborative Floristic Effort of North American Botanists
  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • Flora del Conosur: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Conosur
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • SIBIS: South African National Biodiversity Institute's (SANBI) Integrated Biodiversity System
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:

  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=10543. Accessed 19 July 2019.