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Taxon: Citrus ×paradisi Macfad.

 
Genus: Citrus
Family: Rutaceae
Subfamily: Aurantioideae
Tribe: Aurantieae
Subtribe: Citrinae
Nomen number: 10772
Place of publication: Bot. Misc. 1:304. 1830
Link to protologue:
Comments:
  • • [or C. aurantium Grapefruit Group]
  • • [C. sinensis × C. maxima]
Name Verified on: 13-Nov-2017 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 87 (64 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring
  • Human food: fruit
  • Materials:
  • Medicines: folklore
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals

Distributional Range:

    Cultivated (widely cult. in tropics & subtropics)

References:

  1. Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. 1976-. Flora of Libya.
  2. Carbonell-Caballero, J. et al. 2015. A phylogenetic analysis of 34 chloropoplast genomes elucidates the relationships between wild and domestic species within the genus Citrus. Molec. Biol. Evol. 32:2015-2035.
  3. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959-. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  4. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  5. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  6. Elevitch, C. R., ed. The traditional tree initiative: species profiles for Pacific Island agroforestry (on-line resource). URL: http://www.agroforestry.net/tti/Citrus-citrus.pdf target='_blank' Note: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Holualoa, Hawai'i\; http://www.traditionaltree.org/
  7. Erhardt, W. et al. 2002. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 17. Auflage
  8. Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants Kampong Publications.
  9. Federici, C. T. et al. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Citrus (Rutaceae) and related genera as revealed by RFLP and RAPD analysis. Theor. Appl. Genet. 96:812-822. Note: this study examined 45 species of Citrus, estimating their heterozygosity for identifying those of hybrid origin; it included three samples of C. paradisi; these grouped in the major mandarin cluster together with C. clementina, C. reticulata, C. sinensis and others
  10. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Citrus+paradisi&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  11. Froelicher, Y. et al. 2011. New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny. Tree Genet. Genomes 7:49-61.
  12. Garcia-Lor, A. et al. 2013. A nuclear phylogenetic analysis: SNPs, indels and SSRs deliver new insights into the relationships in the 'true citrus fruit trees' group (Citrinae, Rutaceae) and the origin of cultivated species. Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 111:1-19. Note: this study found support for the hybrid origin of Citrus paradisii involving C. maxima and C. sinensis
  13. Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. Note: re. Brazilian common names
  14. Hackett, C. & J. Carolane. 1982. Edible Horticultural Crops Academic Press.
  15. Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6
  16. Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening
  17. Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada.
  18. Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2 286.
  19. Li, X. et al. 2010. The origin of cultivated Citrus as inferred from Internal Transcribed Spacer and chloroplast DNA sequence and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprints. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 135:341-350.
  20. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  21. Mabberley, D. J. 1997. A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae). Telopea 7:171. Note: = Citrus aurantium Grapefruit Group
  22. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  23. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  24. Medina-Urrutia, V. et al. 2004. New intergeneric somatic hybrids combining Amblycarpa Mandarin with six trifoliate/trifoliate hybrid selections for lime rootstock improvement. HortScience 39:355-360.
  25. Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970-. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  26. Nicolosi, E. et al. 2000. Citrus phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100:1155-1166. Note: this study examined affinities among 34 species of Citrus using RAPD, SCAR, and cpDNA analysis; C. paradisi was represented by grapefruit cultivar 'Duncan'
  27. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  28. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  29. Rehm, S. & G. Espig. 1991. The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics
  30. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  31. Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. Note: re. German common names
  32. Scora, R. W. et al. 1982. Contribution to the origin of the grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae). Syst. Bot. 7:170-177. URL: www.aspt.net/systematic-botany
  33. Smith, A. C. 1979-1991. Flora vitiensis nova.
  34. Soukup, J. 1970. Vocabulario de los nombres vulgares de la flora peruana. 84.
  35. Swingle, W. T. & P. C. Reece. 1967. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives.
  36. Tanaka, T. 1954. Species problem in Citrus: a critical study of wild and cultivated units of Citrus, based upon field studies in their native homes. Revisio Aurantiacearum. 9:118. Note: Maruzen Co. Ltd, Tokyo.
  37. Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966-. Flora of Iraq.
  38. Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952-. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  39. Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 2:133.
  40. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition). Note: = Citrus ×aurantium L.

Check other web resources for Citrus ×paradisi Macfad. :

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=10772. Accessed 19 August 2019.