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Taxon: Citrus unshiu Marcow.

Synonym of Citrus ×aurantium L. var. chrysocarpa (Hassk.) ined.

Genus: Citrus
Family: Rutaceae
Subfamily: Aurantioideae
Tribe: Aurantieae
Subtribe: Citrinae
Nomen number: 10793
Place of publication: Izv. Sochin. Obl. Sukhum. Sadov. Sel. Opyt. Stantsii 2(2):5. 1921
Link to protologue:
Comment: [or Citrus ×aurantium 'Unshiu']
Name Verified on: 06-Mar-2020 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 0 (0 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System


  1. Bhusal, R. C. et al. 2002. Selection of rootstocks for flooding and drought tolerance in citrus species. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 5:509-512.
  2. Cantuarias-Avilés, T. et al. 2010. Tree performance and fruit yield and quality of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin grafted on 12 rootstocks. Sci. Hort. 123:318-322. Note: source of 'Okitsu Satsuma mandarin'
  3. Carbonell-Caballero, J. et al. 2015. A phylogenetic analysis of 34 chloroplast genomes elucidates the relationships between wild and domestic species within the genus Citrus. Molec. Biol. Evol. 32:2015-2035.
  4. Carpenter, J. B. & P. C. Reece. 1969. Catalog of genera, species, and subordinate taxa in the orange subfamily Aurantioideae (Rutaceae). Note: lists as Citrus unshiu (Makino) Marcow.
  5. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959-. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. Note: = Citrus reticulata 'Unshiu'
  6. Choi, S.-Y. et al. 2007. Correlation between flavonoid content and the NO production inhibitory activity of peel extracts from various Citrus fruits. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 30:772-778. Note: comments on traditional medicinal uses of dried peels called "chinpi"
  7. Citrus Crop Germplasm Committee. 1997. pers. comm. Note: re. common names
  8. Courboulex, M. & H. de Lorrain. 1997. Les agrumes: oranges, citron, pamplemousses, kumquats. Note: re. French common names
  9. Cuenca, J. et al. 2010. 'Safor' mandarin: a new Citrus mid-late triploid hybrid. HortScience 45:977-980. Note: this study reported a complex hybrid as a result of a cross between (Citrus clementina × C. tangerina) × (C. unshiu ×: C. nobilis)
  10. Federici, C. T. et al. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Citrus (Rutaceae) and related genera as revealed by RFLP and RAPD analysis. Theor. Appl. Genet. 96:812-822.
  11. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Citrus+unshiu&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  12. Forest Experimental Station, Korea. 1966. Illustrated woody plants of Korea. Note: lists as "unshu"
  13. Froelicher, Y. et al. 2011. New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny. Tree Genet. Genomes 7:49-61. Note: this study examined the origin of cultivated citrus; it included six samples of Citrus unshiu; these samples clustered in the 'Mandarin mitotype' one of the seven recognized
  14. Grosser, J. W. et al. 2000. Somatic hybridization in Citrus: an effective tool to facilitate variety improvement. In Vitro Cell. Developmental Biol., Plant 36:434-449. Note: this review cites complex hybrids involving Citrus unshiu for both graft stock improvement and expanding germplasm (with the genus Aegle)
  15. Hackett, C. & J. Carolane. 1982. Edible Horticultural Crops Academic Press.
  16. Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6
  17. Honsho, C. et al. 2009. Reproductive characteristics for self-incompatibility and seedlesness in 'Nishiushi Kontasu', a bud mutation of Hyuganatsu (Citrus tamurana hort. ex Tanaka). HortScience 44:1547-1551. Note: this study mentioned Citrus unshiu as a parental species of mandarin cultivars (page 1547)
  18. Hu, Z. et al. 2007. Abnormal microspore development leads to pollen abortion in a seedless mutant of 'Ougan' mandarin (Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 132:777-782.
  19. Huang, Y. et al. 2011. Impact of grafting on cold responsive gene expression in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). Euphytica 177:25-32. Note: Netherlands journal of plant breeding
  20. Jiangsu Inst. Bot., ed. v. 1; Shan. R. H., ed. v. 2. 1977-1982. Jiangsu Zhiwuzhi (Flora of Jiangsu).
  21. Kunkel, G. 1984. Plants for human consumption
  22. Lee, Y. N. 1997. Flora of Korea.
  23. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  24. Nakano, M. et al. 2013. Characterization of genes associated with polyembryony and in vitro somatic embryogenesis in Citrus. Tree Genet. Genomes 9:795-803. Note: cites Citrus unshiu "Marcow" as an example of apomictic cultivar "to yield true seed"
  25. Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University. 1998. Medicinal plants in the Republic of Korea. WHO Regional Publications Western Pacific Series No. 21. URL: http://www.wpro.who.int/internet/files/pub/97/73.pdf target='_blank'
  26. Nito, N. et al. 2007. Germplasm conservation of indigenous Citrus. Acta Hort. 760:105-108. Note: a cultivar maintained for potential breeding purposes, and considered the most commercially important cultivated Citrus in Japan
  27. Penjor, T. et al. 2010. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on rbcL gene sequences. Tree Genet. Genomes 6:931-939.
  28. Penjor, T. et al. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences. PLoS One 8(4): e62574.
  29. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  30. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  31. Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. Note: re. German common names
  32. Singh, R. & N. Nath. 1969. Practical approach to the classification of Citrus. In: H. D. Chapman (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Citrus Symposium. 1:439. Note: = Citrus reticulata var. unshiu
  33. St. John, H. 1973. List and summary of the flowering plants in the Hawaiian islands Note: = Citrus reticulata 'Unshiu'
  34. Tanaka, T. 1954. Species problem in Citrus: a critical study of wild and cultivated units of Citrus, based upon field studies in their native homes. Revisio Aurantiacearum. 9:129. Note: Maruzen Co. Ltd, Tokyo.
  35. Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 2:136.
  36. Walker, E. 1976. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands.
  37. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition). Note: = Citrus reticulata Blanco
  38. Ye, X.-Q. et al. 2011. Identification of bioactive composition and antioxidant activity in young mandarin fruits. Food Chem. 124:1561-1566.

Check other web resources for Citrus unshiu Marcow. :

  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=10793. Accessed 15 July 2020.