Taxon: Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.

Genus: Ilex
Family: Aquifoliaceae
Nomen number: 19756
Place of publication: Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 9:351. 1822
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 06-Nov-1985 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 13-Mar-2017
Species priority site is: National Arboretum (NA)
Accessions: 0 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring (fide Pl Res SEAs 16:83. 2000)
  • Human food: beverage base (fide CultTropS; Pl Res SEAs 16:83. 2000)
  • Materials: essential oils (used in perfumery fide Pl Res SEAs 16:83. 2000)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2; Pl Res SEAs 16:83. 2000)
  • Social: stimulant (fide Pl Book; Pl Res SEAs 16:83. 2000)

Distributional Range:


  • Southern America

    • Brazil: Brazil Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo
    • Southern South America: Argentina Corrientes, Misiones; Paraguay Alto Parana, Amambay, Caaguazu, Central, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, San Pedro, Canendiyu; Uruguay


  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Angely, J. A. Flora analitica do Parana. (L Parana)
  • Dubs, B. Prodromus florae matogrossensis. Botany of Mato Grosso, series B, no. 3. (L Mato Grosso)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Giberti, C. C. 1979. Las especies argentinas del género Ilex L. (Aquifoliaceae) (Darwiniana) 22:227.
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Kartesz, J. T. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. (L US Can ed2)
  • Krüssmann, G. Manual of cultivated broad-leaved trees and shrubs (English translation of Handbuch der Laubgehölze. 1976). 1984 (Krussmann)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. (Hortus 3)
  • Mabberley, D. J. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants, ed. 2. 1997 (Pl Book)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Rehm, S. & G. Espig The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics. 1991 (CultTropS)
  • Reitz, R., ed. Flora ilustrada catarinense. (F SCatarin)
  • Spichiger, R., ed. Flora del Paraguay. (F Parag)
  • Vossen, H. A. M. van der & M. Wessel, eds. 2000. Stimulants (Pl Res SEAs) 16:83.
  • Zuloaga, F. O. & O. Morrone, eds. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. I. Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Angiospermae (Monocotyledonae), II. Dicotyledonae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60, 74. (L Argent)

Check other web resources for Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. :

  • Flora del Conosur: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Conosur
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ICRA: International Cultivar Registration Authority (on-line resource). for Ilex paraguariensis cultivars
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.


  • Embryo drawing: U.S. National Seed Herbarium drawing
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image