Taxon: Lolium perenne L.

Genus: Lolium
Family: Poaceae (alt.Gramineae)
Subfamily: Pooideae
Tribe: Poeae
Subtribe: Loliinae
Nomen number: 22494
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:83. 1753
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 08-May-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 20-Nov-2007
Species priority site is: Western Regional PI Station (W6)
Accessions: 974 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: erosion control (fide Cover Crop Database)
  • Environmental: lawn/turf (used in mixtures for lawns fide Grass VarUSA)
  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Environmental: soil improver (fide Cover Crop Database)
  • Animal food: fodder (fide Grass VarUSA)
  • Animal food: forage (fide Grass VarUSA)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Kingsbury; Kellerman et al.; Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide Weed CIBA; Invasive Pl Spec)

Distributional Range:


  • Africa

    • Macaronesia: Portugal Madeira Islands; Spain Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria ; Egypt ; Libya ; Morocco ; Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Arabian Peninsula: Saudi Arabia
    • Caucasus: Armenia ; Azerbaijan ; Georgia ; Russian Federation Dagestan; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia Ciscaucasia
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan ; Cyprus ; Egypt Sinai; Iran ; Iraq ; Israel ; Jordan ; Lebanon ; Syria ; Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: India ; Pakistan
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Belarus ; Moldova ; Russian Federation-European part European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria ; Belgium ; Czech Republic ; Germany ; Hungary ; Netherlands ; Poland ; Slovakia ; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark ; Ireland ; Norway ; Sweden ; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania ; Bulgaria ; Croatia ; Greece ; Italy ; Romania ; Serbia ; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal ; Spain

  • Naturalized

  • Africa

    • Macaronesia: Portugal Azores
    • Southern Africa: Lesotho ; South Africa
    • Western Indian Ocean: British Indian Ocean Terr Diego Garcia; Mauritius ; Reunion
  • Australasia

    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Northern America

    • Canada ; Mexico ; United States
    • Subarctic America: Greenland
  • Pacific

    • North-Central Pacific: United States Hawaii
    • Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia
  • Southern America

    • Brazil: Brazil
    • Caribbean: West Indies
    • Central America: Costa Rica ; Guatemala ; Honduras ; Panama
    • Northern South America: French Guiana
    • Southern South America: Argentina ; Chile ; Uruguay
    • Western South America: Bolivia ; Ecuador ; Peru

  • Cultivated


  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). (AgroAtlas)
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Alderson, J. & W. C. Sharp Grass varieties in the United States, U.S.D.A. Agric. Handb. 170, rev. ed. 1995 (Grass VarUSA)
  • Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. Flora of Libya. (F Libya)
  • Bor, N. L. The grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. (Grass BCIP)
  • Boulos, L. Flora of Egypt. 1999- (F Egypt)
  • Boulos, L. Flora of Egypt checklist. (L Egypt)
  • Boulos, L. & M. N. El-Hadidi The weeds of Egypt. (Weeds Egypt)
  • CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland Documenta CIBA-GEIGY (Grass weeds 1. 1980, 2. 1981; Monocot weeds 3. 1982; Dicot weeds 1. 1988) (Weed CIBA)
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. 1998 (Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. (F Turk)
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14. 2003 (Pl SAfr ed2)
  • Hansen, A. & P. Sunding Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17. (L Macar ed4)
  • Henderson, L. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute, Handbook 12. 2001 (Weeds SAfr 2001)
  • Hnatiuk, R. J. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11. (L Aust)
  • Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource). (Pacif I Ecosyst Risk)
  • International Seed Testing Association A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2. (Mult Glossary Crops)
  • Izquierdo Z., I. et al., eds. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. 2004 (L Canarias)
  • Kellerman, T. S. et al. Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of livestock in Southern Africa. 1988 (Kellerman et al.)
  • Kingsbury, J. M. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. (Kingsbury)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants (Kulturpflanze) 34:106.
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. Flora of [West] Pakistan. (F Pak)
  • Ohwi, J. Flora of Japan (Engl. ed.). (F JapanOhwi)
  • Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. (F Iran)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Silva, L. et al. Listagem da fauna e flora terrestres dos Açores. Lista des plantas vasculares (Pteridophyta e Spermatophyta). (L Azores)
  • Soreng, R. J. et al. 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48:428.
  • Terrell, E. E. 1968. A taxonomic revision of the genus Lolium Techn. Bull. U.S.D.A. 1392:7.
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest Flora of Iraq. (F Iraq)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. (F Eur)
  • Tzvelev, N. N. Zlaki SSSR. 1976 (Grass USSR)
  • University of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program UC SAREP on-line cover crop database (on-line resource). (Cover Crop Database)
  • Weber, E. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. 2003 (Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). (F ChinaEng)
  • Zohary, M. & N. Feinbrun-Dothan Flora palaestina. (F Palest)


Check other web resources for Lolium perenne L. :


  • Florets: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image