Taxon: Oenothera biennis L.

 
Genus: Oenothera
Section: Oenothera
Subsection: Oenothera
Family: Onagraceae
Subfamily: Onagroideae
Tribe: Onagreae
Nomen number: 25521
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:346. 1753
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 03-Mar-1998 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 13-Feb-2009
Species priority site is: Ornamental Plant Germplasm Center (OPGC)
Accessions: 174 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Dict Gard; Hortus 3)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide Ency CNatIn; CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)

Distributional Range:

    Other


    Native

  • Northern America

    • Eastern Canada: Canada New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States Texas
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    • Western Canada: Canada Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan

  • Naturalized


    Cultivated


References:

  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on www.skud.info). 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Britton, N. L. et al., eds. ser. 1; C. T. Rogerson, ed. ser. 2 North American flora ser. 1, 1905-1957; ser. 2, 1954-1972 (N Amer fl)
  • Chester, E. W. et al. Atlas of Tennessee vascular plants. 1993-1997 (Atlas Tenn)
  • Dietrich, W. et al. 1997. Systematics of Oenothera section Oenothera subsection Oenothera (Onagraceae) Syst. Bot. Monogr. 50:93.
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. Flora of Japan. 1993- (F Japan)
  • Kartesz, J. T. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. (L US Can ed2)
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • Mansfeld, R. Die Kulturpflanze, Beiheft 2. 1959 (Mansfeld)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants (Kulturpflanze) 34:112.
  • Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  • Raven, P. et al. 1979. An outline of the systematics of Oenothera subsect. Euoenothera (Onagraceae) Syst. Bot. 4:244.
  • Scoggan, H. J. The flora of Canada, 4 vol. 1978-1979 (F Canada)
  • Skvortsov, A. K. 1994. Genus Oenothera (Onagraceae) in the former Soviet Union: taxonomy and distribution Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. 99:98.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)

Synonyms:

Check other web resources for Oenothera biennis L. :

Images:

  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image