Taxon: Oenothera biennis L.

 
Genus: Oenothera
Section: Oenothera
Subsection: Oenothera
Family: Onagraceae
Subfamily: Onagroideae
Tribe: Onagreae
Nomen number: 25521
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:346. 1753
Link to protologue:
Typification:
Name Verified on: 03-Mar-1998 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 13-Feb-2009
Species priority site is: Ornamental Plant Germplasm Center (OPGC)
Accessions: 174 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Synonyms:

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Dict Gard; Hortus 3)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide Ency CNatIn; CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Northern America
    • EASTERN CANADA: Canada [New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec]
    • WESTERN CANADA: Canada [Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan]
    • NORTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia]
    • NORTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [Illinois, Iowa, Kansas (e.), Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota (e.), Oklahoma (e.), South Dakota, Wisconsin]
    • SOUTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee (http://tenn.bio.utk.edu/vascular/database/vascular-database.asp?CategoryID=Dicots&FamilyID=Onagraceae&GenusID=Oenothera&SpeciesID=biennis), Virginia]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [Texas]


    Cultivated (also cult.)

    Naturalized (widely natzd. in temperate & subtropic regions)

    Other (exact native range obscure)

References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on www.skud.info). 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  2. Britton, N. L. et al., eds. ser. 1; C. T. Rogerson, ed. ser. 2 North American flora ser. 1, 1905-1957; ser. 2, 1954-1972 (N Amer fl)
  3. Chester, E. W. et al. Atlas of Tennessee vascular plants. (Atlas Tenn)
  4. Dietrich, W. et al. 1997. Systematics of Oenothera section Oenothera subsection Oenothera (Onagraceae) Syst. Bot. Monogr. 50:93.
  5. Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  6. Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
  7. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  8. Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  9. Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  10. Iwatsuki, K. et al. Flora of Japan. (F Japan)
  11. Kartesz, J. T. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. (L US Can ed2)
  12. Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn)
  13. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. (Hortus 3)
  14. Mansfeld, R. Die Kulturpflanze, Beiheft 2. (Mansfeld)
  15. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  16. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  17. Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants (Kulturpflanze) 34:112.
  18. Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  19. Raven, P. et al. 1979. An outline of the systematics of Oenothera subsect. Euoenothera (Onagraceae) Syst. Bot. 4:244.
  20. Scoggan, H. J. The flora of Canada, 4 vol. (F Canada)
  21. Skvortsov, A. K. 1994. Genus Oenothera (Onagraceae) in the former Soviet Union: taxonomy and distribution Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. 99:98.
  22. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). (F ChinaEng)

Check other web resources for Oenothera biennis L. :

Images:

  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=25521. Accessed 19 June 2018.