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Taxon: Phalaris arundinacea L.

 
Genus: Phalaris
Family: Poaceae (alt.Gramineae)
Subfamily: Pooideae
Tribe: Poeae
Subtribe: Phalaridinae
Nomen number: 27512
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:55. 1753
Link to protologue:
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 25-Jan-1996 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 209 (170 active, 97 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Animal food: fodder; forage
  • Environmental: ornamental
  • Fuels:
  • Vertebrate poisons:
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant; potential seed contaminant

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Portugal [Madeira Islands]
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria (n.), Egypt, Tunisia

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Iran, Iraq, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russian Federation, [Dagestan] Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia, [Eastern Siberia] Russian Federation-Western Siberia [Western Siberia]
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
    • MONGOLIA: Mongolia
    • CHINA: China
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan, Korea, Taiwan

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy (incl. Sardinia), Romania, Serbia, Slovenia
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Corsica), Portugal, Spain

    Northern America
    • SUBARCTIC AMERICA: Canada, [Northwest Territories, Yukon] United States [Alaska]
    • EASTERN CANADA: Canada [Québec, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador]
    • WESTERN CANADA: Canada [Saskatchewan, Alberta, Manitoba, British Columbia]
    • NORTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia]
    • NORTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin]
    • NORTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington]
    • SOUTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina (n. & w.), Tennessee, Virginia]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [New Mexico (n. & c.)]
    • SOUTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Arizona (n.), California, Nevada, Utah]


    Cultivated

    Asia-Temperate
    • CHINA: China

    Northern America
    • Canada, United States


    Naturalized

    Africa
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: Lesotho, South Africa

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand

    Northern America
    • Mexico

    Pacific
    • NORTH-CENTRAL PACIFIC: United States [Hawaii]

    Southern America
    • CENTRAL AMERICA: El Salvador
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Colombia
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina, Uruguay


References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Alderson, J. & W. C. Sharp. 1995. Grass varieties in the United States, U.S.D.A. Agric. Handb. 170, rev. ed. CRC Press. Note: Revised version of AH 170
  3. Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49:269.
  4. Bor, N. L. 1960. The grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan.
  5. Boulos, L. 1995. Flora of Egypt checklist.
  6. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959-. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  7. CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland. Documenta CIBA-GEIGY (Grass weeds 1. 1980, 2. 1981; Monocot weeds 3. 1982; Dicot weeds 1. 1988) Note: four books on weeds worldwide in scope
  8. Dassanayake, M. D. & F. R. Fosberg, eds. 1980-. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon.
  9. Demilly, D. et al. 2001. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 7 Note: GEVES-SNES, Beaucouzé, France
  10. Englert, J. M. et al. 1999-. USDA-NRCS Improved conservation plant materials released by NRCS and cooperators
  11. FNA Editorial Committee. 1993-. Flora of North America.
  12. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Phalaris+arundinacea&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  13. Giraldo-Cañas, D. 2011. Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia. Darwiniana 49:139-247.
  14. Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California
  15. Hitchcock, A. S. 1950. Manual of the grasses of the United States, ed. 2.
  16. Holm, L. et al. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds
  17. Howell, C. J. & J. W. D. Sawyer. 2006. New Zealand naturalised vascular plant checklist
  18. Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening
  19. Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares.
  20. International Seed Testing Association. 1982. A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2.
  21. Kartesz, J. T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland.
  22. Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada.
  23. Koyama, T. 1987. Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions
  24. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  25. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  26. Meyer, M. H. 2012. Chapter 3. Ornamental grasses in the United States. Hort. Rev. 39:121-152.
  27. Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants. Kulturpflanze 34:116.
  28. Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource).
  29. Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970-. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  30. Ohwi, J. 1965. Flora of Japan (Engl. ed.).
  31. Perdereau, A. et al. 2017. Plastid genome sequencing reveals biogeographical structure and extensive poulation genetic variation in wild populations of Phalaris arundinacea L. in northwestern Europe. GCB Bioenergy 9:46-56. DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12362
  32. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  33. Quézel, P. & S. Santa. 1962-1963. Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie.
  34. Randall, R. P. 2007. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status.
  35. Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963-. Flora iranica.
  36. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  37. Soreng, R. J. et al. 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48:480-481.
  38. Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966-. Flora of Iraq.
  39. Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952-. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  40. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964-1980. Flora europaea.
  41. Tzvelev, N. N. 1976. Zlaki SSSR
  42. Voshell, S. M. et al. 2011. Canary grasses (Phalaris, Poaceae): Molecular phylogenetics, polyploidy and floret evolution. Taxon 60:1306-1316.
  43. Voshell, S. M. et al. 2015. Infrageneric treatment of Phalaris (Canary grasses, Poaceae) based on molecular phylogenetics and floret structure. Austral. Syst. Bot. 28:355-367. DOI: 10.1071/SB15025
  44. Walters, S. M. et al., eds. 1986-2000. European garden flora.
  45. Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds
  46. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  47. 1961. Webster's third new international dictionary.
  48. 2018. Mid-Atlantic invasive plant species (on-line resource)
  49. Plants of southern Africa: an online checklist.

Check other web resources for Phalaris arundinacea L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • Flora del Conosur: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Conosur
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • SIBIS: South African National Biodiversity Institute's (SANBI) Integrated Biodiversity System
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • CNWG: Catalogue of New World Grasses Searchable Database
  • Grass Manual on the Web: Manual of Grasses for North America North of Mexico
  • World Grass Species-Descriptions: Morphological species description from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:


Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=27512. Accessed 24 October 2019.