Taxon: Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb

 
Genus: Prunus
  Subgenus: Amygdalus
Family: Rosaceae
  Subfamily: Amygdaloideae
      Tribe: Amygdaleae
Nomen number: 29890
Place of publication: Feddes Repert. 74:24. 1967
Name Verified on: 12-Apr-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 23-May-2011
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Davis (DAV)
Accessions: 620 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring (fide Cornucopia, as Amygdalus communis ‘Amara’)
  • Bee plants: honey production (fide F Int Apico)
  • Human food: nut (fide Krussmann)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for almond (fide Breed Pl Tree Crops 10. 2009)
  • Gene sources: primary genetic relative of almond (fide Breed Pl Tree Crops 10. 2009)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of peach (fide Breed Pl Tree Crops 10. 2009)
  • Materials: lipids (almond oil for pharmaceutical use fide Food Feed Crops US)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals ("bitter almond" fide Kingsbury, as P. amygdalus ; Cooper & Johnson ed2, as Amygdalus communis)

Distributional Range:

    Native:

  • Asia-Temperate

    • Middle Asia: Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • Western Asia: Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Turkey

  • Naturalized:

  • Africa

    • Macaronesia: Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia
    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Iran
  • Europe

    • Middle Europe: Switzerland
    • Southeastern Europe: Bulgaria; Croatia; Italy; Macedonia; Serbia
    • Southwestern Europe: France - Corsica; Portugal; Spain

  • Cultivated:

    . cult. mainly in Mediterranean region, temperate Asia, N. & S. America, South Africa, & Australia

References:

  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on www.skud.info). 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. Flora of Libya. 1976- (F Libya)
  • Aradhya, M. K. et al. 2004. Molecular characterization of variability and relationships among seven cultivated and selected wild species of Prunus L. using amplified fragment length polymorphism Sci. Hort. 103:131-144.
  • Aradhya, M. K. et al. 2004. Molecular characterization of variability and relationships among seven cultivated and selected wild species of Prunus L. using amplified fragment length polymorphism Sci. Hort. 103:131-144.
  • Badenes, M. L. & D. E. Parfitt 1995. Phylogenetic relationships of cultivated Prunus species from analysis of chloroplast DNA Theor. Appl. Genet. 90:1035-1041.
  • Bortiri, E. et al. 2001. Phylogeny and systematics of Prunus (Rosaceae) as determined by sequence analysis of ITS and the chloroplast trnL-trnF spacer DNA Syst. Bot. 26:797-807.
  • Bortiri, E. et al. 2001. Phylogeny and systematics of Prunus (Rosaceae) as determined by sequence analysis of ITS and the chloroplast trnL-trnF spacer DNA Syst. Bot. 26:797-807.
  • Bortiri, E. et al. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis of morphology in Prunus reveals extensive homoplasy Pl. Syst. Evol. 259:53-71.
  • Bortiri, E. et al. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis of morphology in Prunus reveals extensive homoplasy Pl. Syst. Evol. 259:53-71.
  • Bouhadida, M. et al. 2007. Chloroplast DNA diversity in Prunus and its implication on genetic relationships J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 132:670-679.
  • Browicz, K. & D. Zohary 1996. The genus Amygdalus L. (Rosaceae): species relationships, distribution and evolution under domestication Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 43:233.
  • Chin, S.-W. et al. 2014. Diversification of almonds, peaches, plums and cherries - Molecular systematics and biogeographic history of Prunus (Rosaceae) Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 76:34-48.
  • Chin, S.-W. et al. 2014. Diversification of almonds, peaches, plums and cherries - Molecular systematics and biogeographic history of Prunus (Rosaceae) Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 76:34-48.
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. 1959- (F China)
  • Craker, L. E. & J. E. Simon, eds. Herbs, spices, and medicinal plants, 2 vols. 1986-1987 (HerbSpices)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Demilly, D. et al. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 6. 1996 (L Noms French ed6)
  • Duke, J. A. Handbook of Nuts. CRC Press. 1989 (Handb Nuts)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 14. Auflage. 1993 (Zander ed14)
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 17. Auflage. 2002 (Zander ed17)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Facciola, S. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants. 1990 (Cornucopia)
  • Gradziel, T. M. 2009. Almond (Prunus dulcis) breeding (Breed Pl Tree Crops) 1-31.
  • Gradziel, T. M. & P. Martínez-Gómez 2013. Chapter 4. Almond breeding Pl. Breed. Rev. 37:207-255.
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Kester, D. E. et al. 1991. Almonds (Prunus) Acta Hort. 290:701-760.
  • Krüssmann, G. Manual of cultivated broad-leaved trees and shrubs (English translation of Handbuch der Laubgehölze. 1976). 1984 (Krussmann)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • Martínez-Gómez, P. et al. 2003. New approaches to Prunus tree crop breeding J. Food Agric. Environm. 1:52-63.
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Meikle, R. D. Flora of Cyprus. 1977-1985 (F Cyprus)
  • Mowrey, B. D. & D. J. Werner 1990. Phylogenetic relationships among species of Prunus as inferred by isozyme markers Theor. Appl. Genet. 80:129-133.
  • Mowrey, B. D. & D. J. Werner 1990. Phylogenetic relationships among species of Prunus as inferred by isozyme markers Theor. Appl. Genet. 80:129-133.
  • Ortega-Sada, J. L. Flora de interes apicola y polinizacion de cultivos. 1987 (F Int Apico)
  • Peirce, A. The American Pharmaceutical Association practical guide to natural medicines. 1999 (Pract Guide Nat Med)
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Rosengarten, F. The book of edible nuts. 1984 (Edible Nuts)
  • Sorkheh, K. et al. 2007. Amplified fragment length polymorphism as a tool for molecular characterization of almond germplasm: genetic diversity among cultivated genotypes and related wild species of almond, and its relationships with agronomic traits (Euphytica) 156:327-344.
  • Sorkheh, K. et al. 2009. Phenotypic diversity within native Iranian almond (Prunus spp.) species and their breeding potential Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 56:947-961.
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest Flora of Iraq. 1966- (F Iraq)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)
  • Yazbek, M. & S.-H. Oh 2013. Peaches and almonds: phylogeny of Prunus subg. Amygdalus (Rosaceae) based on DNA sequences and morphology Pl. Syst. Evol. 299:1403-1418.
  • Yazbek, M. & S.-H. Oh 2013. Peaches and almonds: phylogeny of Prunus subg. Amygdalus (Rosaceae) based on DNA sequences and morphology Pl. Syst. Evol. 299:1403-1418.
  • Zeinalabedini, M. et al. 2010. The origin and dissemination of the cultivated almond as determined by nuclear and chloroplast SSR marker analysis Sci. Hort. 120:593-601.
  • Zeinalabedini, M. et al. 2010. The origin and dissemination of the cultivated almond as determined by nuclear and chloroplast SSR marker analysis Sci. Hort. 120:593-601.

Synonyms:

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