Taxon: Trifolium hybridum L.

 
Genus: Trifolium
  Subgenus: Trifolium
    Section: Vesicastrum
Family: Fabaceae (alt.Leguminosae)
  Subfamily: Papilionoideae
      Tribe: Trifolieae
Nomen number: 300618
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:766. 1753
Name Verified on: 26-Mar-2007 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 25-Jun-2012
Species priority site is: Western Regional PI Station (W6)
Accessions: 313 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Harmful organism host: crop diseases (fide Virus Diseases 35. 1987)
  • Harmful organism host: crop pests (fide Virus Diseases 35. 1987)
  • Bee plants: honey production (fide Leg ErWild)
  • Environmental: erosion control (fide Leg WorldEc)
  • Animal food: fodder (fide Leg WorldEc)
  • Animal food: forage (fide Leg WorldEc)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Kingsbury; Cooper & Johnson ed2)

Distributional Range:

    Native:

  • Africa

    • Northern Africa: Morocco
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Checheno-Ingushetia, - Dagestan, - Kabardino-Balkaria, - Karachay-Cherkessia, - Krasnodar, - Stavropol
    • Western Asia: Iran; Iraq; Turkey
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation - Bashkortostan, - Chuvashia, - Kalmykia, - Karelia, - Komi, - Mari-El, - Mordvinia, - Tatarstan, - Udmurtia, - Arkhangelsk, - Nenets, - Astrakhan, - Belgorod, - Bryansk, - Ivanovo, - Kaliningrad, - Kaluga, - Kirov, - Kostroma, - Kursk, - Leningrad, - Lipetsk, - Moscow, - Murmansk, - Novgorod, - Orel, - Orenburg, - Penza, - Perm, - Komi-Permyak, - Pskov, - Rostov, - Ryazan, - Saratov, - Smolensk, - Tambov, - Tula, - Ulyanovsk, - Vladimir, - Volgograd, - Vologda, - Voronezh, - Yaroslavl; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Czechoslovakia; Hungary; Switzerland
    • Southeastern Europe: Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece; Italy; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Spain

  • Naturalized:

    . natzd. throughout temperate regions

References:

  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). (AgroAtlas)
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on www.skud.info). 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Converse, R. H., ed. Virus diseases of small fruits. USDA Agriculture Handbook 631. 1987 (Virus Diseases)
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. 1998 (Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Cronquist, A. et al. Intermountain flora. 1972- (Intermt F)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Duke, J. A. Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. 1981 (Leg WorldEc)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Gillett, J. M. & N. L. Taylor (M. Collins ed.) The world of clovers. 2001 (Clovers) 184.
  • Graham, E. H. Legumes for erosion control and wildlife. USDA Misc. Publ. 412. 1941 (Leg ErWild)
  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. Med-Checklist. 1984- (L Medit)
  • International Seed Testing Association A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2. 1982 (Mult Glossary Crops)
  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. Flora of Japan. 1993- (F Japan)
  • Kingsbury, J. M. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. 1964 (Kingsbury)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • McGregor, R. L. et al. (The Great Plains Flora Association) Flora of the Great Plains. 1986 (F GPlains)
  • Moerman, D. Native American ethnobotany, ed. 5. 1998 (Nat Amer Ethnobot)
  • Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource). (Can Poison Pl)
  • Pignatti, S. Flora d'Italia. 1982 (F Ital)
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. 1963- (F Iran)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest Flora of Iraq. 1966- (F Iraq)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Welsh, S. L. et al. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Mem. 9. 1987 (F Utah)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)
  • Yakovlev, G. P. et al. Legumes of Northern Eurasia. 1996 (Leg NEurasia)
  • Zohary, M. & D. Heller 1984. The genus Trifolium. 1984 (Trifolium) 145.

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