Taxon: Trifolium pratense L.

 
Genus: Trifolium
  Subgenus: Trifolium
    Section: Trifolium
Family: Fabaceae (alt.Leguminosae)
  Subfamily: Papilionoideae
      Tribe: Trifolieae
Nomen number: 300623
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:768. 1753
Name Verified on: 23-Mar-2007 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 25-Jun-2012
Species priority site is: Western Regional PI Station (W6)
Accessions: 2473 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring (fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Harmful organism host: crop diseases (fide Virus Diseases 35. 1987)
  • Harmful organism host: crop pests (fide Virus Diseases 35. 1987)
  • Bee plants: honey production (fide Dict Gard)
  • Environmental: soil improver (fide Dict Gard)
  • Animal food: fodder (fide Food Feed Crops US)
  • Animal food: forage (fide Genet Res Crop Evol 44:439. 1997)
  • Gene sources: primary genetic relative of red clover (based on geographical genetic variation as potential source of crossable populations fide Genet Res Crop Evol 51:652. 2004)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide Ency CNatIn; CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Kingsbury; Kellerman et al.; Cooper & Johnson ed2)

Distributional Range:

    Native:

  • Africa

    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan
    • Siberia: Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia - Eastern Siberia; Russian Federation-Western Siberia - Western Siberia
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: India; Pakistan
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Belarus; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece; Italy; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain

  • Naturalized:

    . widely natzd. in temperate regions

    Cultivated:

    . also cult.

References:

  • Federal Seed Act and Regulations, Agricultural and Vegetable Kind Lists, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Seed Regulatory and Testing Branch. 1998 (Federal Seed Act)
  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). (AgroAtlas)
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on www.skud.info) (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Converse, R. H., ed. Virus diseases of small fruits. USDA Agriculture Handbook 631. 1987 (Virus Diseases)
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. 1998 (Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Cronquist, A. et al. Intermountain flora. 1972- (Intermt F)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Demilly, D. et al. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 7. 2001 (L Noms French ed7)
  • Duke, J. A. Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. 1981 (Leg WorldEc)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Ellison, N. W. et al. 2006. Molecular phylogenetics of the clover genus (Trifolium - Leguminosae) Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 39:688-705.
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Foster, S. & C. Hobbs A field guide to Western medicinal plants and herbs. 2002 (W Med Pl Herbs)
  • Foster, S. & J. A. Duke A field guide to medicinal plants: Eastern/Central North America, 2nd ed. 2000 (EastC Med Pl)
  • Foster, S. & V. E. Tyler Tyler's honest herbal: a sensible guide to the use of herbs and related remedies, ed. 4. 1999 (Tyler Herbal)
  • Gillett, J. M. & N. L. Taylor (M. Collins ed.) The world of clovers. 2001 (Clovers) 326.
  • Graham, E. H. Legumes for erosion control and wildlife. USDA Misc. Publ. 412. 1941 (Leg ErWild)
  • Greene, S. L. et al. 2004. Relating morphologic and RAPD marker variation to collection site environment in wild populations of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 51:643-653.
  • Grellin, J. K. & J. Philpott A reference guide to medicinal plants. 1990 (RefGuide MedPl)
  • Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  • Huang, S. F. & T. C. Huang Taxonomic treatment of the Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Taiwan. Taiwania 32:11-117. 1987 (Leg Taiwan)
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) Australian plant common name database (on-line resource). (Aust Pl Common Names)
  • International Seed Testing Association A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2. 1982 (Mult Glossary Crops)
  • Kellerman, T. S. et al. Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of livestock in Southern Africa. 1988 (Kellerman et al.)
  • Kingsbury, J. M. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. 1964 (Kingsbury)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Kongkiatngam, P. et al. 1995. Genetic variation within and between two cultivars of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.): Comparisons of morphological, isozyme, and RAPD markers (Euphytica) 84:237-246.
  • Kouamé C. N. et al. 1997. Response to root-knot nematodes of a germplasm collection of red clover and related species Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 44:439-445.
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Meikle, R. D. Flora of Cyprus. 1977-1985 (F Cyprus)
  • Moerman, D. Native American ethnobotany, ed. 5. 1998 (Nat Amer Ethnobot)
  • Moore, M. Medicinal plants of the mountain west, ed. 2. 2003 (Med Pl MtW)
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants (Kulturpflanze) 34:132.
  • Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource). (Can Poison Pl)
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. Flora of [West] Pakistan. 1970- (F Pak)
  • Peirce, A. The American Pharmaceutical Association practical guide to natural medicines. 1999 (Pract Guide Nat Med)
  • Pignatti, S. Flora d'Italia. 1982 (F Ital)
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Pottier-Alapetite, G. Flore de la Tunisie: Angiospermes-Dicotyledones. 1979-1981 (F Tunis)
  • Quézel, P. & S. Santa Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie. 1962-1963 (F Alger)
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. 1963- (F Iran)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Rostliny, L. Katalog Léçivých Rostlin & Malý Herbá&r Léçivých Rostlin. 1984-1985 (Kat Lev Ros)
  • Smythies, B. E. Flora of Spain and the Balearic Islands: checklist of vascular plants. Englera 3:1-882. 1984-1986 (L Spain)
  • Taylor, N. L. 2008. A century of clover breeding developments in the United States Crop Sci. (Madison) 48:1-13.
  • Taylor, N. L. et al. 1963. Interspecific hybridization of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) Crop Sci. (Madison) 3:549-552.
  • Taylor, N. L. et al. 1963. Interspecific hybridization of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) Crop Sci. (Madison) 3:549-552.
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest Flora of Iraq. 1966- (F Iraq)
  • Walker, E. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands. 1976 (F Okin)
  • Watson, L. E. et al. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of Old World Trifolium (Fabaceae), based on plastid and nuclear markers Pl. Syst. Evol. 224:153-171.
  • Watson, L. E. et al. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of Old World Trifolium (Fabaceae), based on plastid and nuclear markers Pl. Syst. Evol. 224:153-171.
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)
  • Zohary, M. & D. Heller 1984. The genus Trifolium. 1984 (Trifolium) 357.

Check other web resources for Trifolium pratense L. :

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • ILDIS: International Legume Database & Information Service
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.