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Taxon: Solanum nigrum L.

 
Genus: Solanum
Subgenus: Solanum
Section: Solanum
Family: Solanaceae
Subfamily: Solanoideae
Tribe: Solaneae
Nomen number: 310124
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:186. 1753
Link to protologue:
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 13-Nov-2002 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 71 (6 active, 4 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

  • black nightshade  (Source: State Noxweed Seed) - English
  • blackberry nightshade  (Source: Aust Pl Common Names) - English
  • common nightshade  (Source: Zander ed17) - English
  • poisonberry  (Source: Dict Gard) - English
  • 'enab el-deeb  (Source: F Egypt) - Arabic
  • black nightshade    - English (Canada)
  • morelle noire  (Source: Dict Rehm) - French
  • morelle noire   - French (Canada)
  • schwarzer Nachtschatten  (Source: Dict Rehm) - German
  • erva-moura  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Portuguese
  • pimenta-de-galinha  (Source: pers. comm.) - Portuguese (Brazil)
  • hierba mora  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Spanish
  • nattskatta  (Source: Kulturvaxtdatabas) - Swedish

Economic Importance:

  • Harmful organism host: crop diseases
  • Human food:
  • Medicines: folklore; folklore; folklore
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals; mammals
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant; potential seed contaminant

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Egypt, [Sinai] Iran, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russian Federation, [Dagestan] Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation, [Altay] Russian Federation-Western Siberia [Western Siberia]
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
    • CHINA: China

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India (n.), Nepal, Pakistan

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France, Portugal, Spain


    Naturalized

    Africa
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Eritrea, Ethiopia
    • SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA: Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: Botswana, Eswatini, Namibia, South Africa [KwaZulu-Natal, Free State, Eastern Cape, Northern Cape, Western Cape, Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North-West]

    Asia-Temperate
    • ARABIAN PENINSULA: Yemen

    Asia-Tropical
    • PAPUASIA: Papua New Guinea

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand

    Northern America
    • Canada, Mexico, United States

    Pacific
    • NORTH-CENTRAL PACIFIC: United States [Hawaii]
    • NORTHWESTERN PACIFIC: United States [Guam]
    • SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC: New Caledonia

    Southern America
    • CENTRAL AMERICA: Central America
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Chile


    Other (exact native range obscure)

References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Allan, H. H. B. et al. 1961-. Flora of New Zealand.
  3. Boulos, L. 1999-. Flora of Egypt
  4. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959-. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  5. CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland. 1974. The CIBA-GEIGY Weed Tables
  6. Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson. 1998. Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning Note: poisonous
  7. Darbyshire, S. J. 2003. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 217.
  8. D'Arcy, W. G. 1974. Solanum and its close relatives in Florida. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 61:855.
  9. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  10. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  11. Edmonds, J. M. & J. A. Chweya. 1997. Black nightshades. Solanum nigrum L. and related species. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 15:28.
  12. Erhardt, W. et al. 2002. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 17. Auflage
  13. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  14. Exell, A. W. et al., eds. 1960-. Flora zambesiaca.
  15. Figueiredo, E. & G. F. Smith. 2008. Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279.
  16. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Solanum+nigrum&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  17. George, A. S., ed. 1980-. Flora of Australia.
  18. Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14
  19. Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. Note: re. Brazilian common names
  20. Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards. 1989-. Flora of Ethiopia Note: Eritrea added in 2000
  21. Henderson, R. J. F. 1974. Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae) and related species in Australia. Contr. Queensland Herb. 16:19-28.
  22. Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California
  23. Holm, L. et al. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds
  24. Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening
  25. Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource).
  26. Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares.
  27. Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  28. Iwatsuki, K. et al. 1993-. Flora of Japan.
  29. Jahandiez, E. & R. Maire. 1931-1941. Catalogue des plantes du Maroc.
  30. Jones, J. B. et al. 1997. Compendium of tomato diseases. The disease compendium series. 42.
  31. Kala, C. P. et al. 2004. Prioritization of medicinal plants on the basis of available knowledge, existing practices and use value status in Uttaranchal, India. Biodivers. & Conservation 13:459.
  32. Kartesz, J. T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland.
  33. Kellerman, T. S. et al. 1988. Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of livestock in Southern Africa Note: poisonous
  34. Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. Note: poisonous
  35. Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934-1964. Flora SSSR.
  36. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  37. Mouterde, P. 1966-. Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie.
  38. Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource).
  39. Nee, M. 1999. Synopsis of Solanum in the New World. Solanaceae IV: advances in biology and utilization 306.
  40. Padua, L. S. de et al., eds. 1999. Medicinal and poisonous plants 1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 12(1):458.
  41. PBI Solanum Project. Solanaceae source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family (on-line resource).
  42. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  43. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). URL: http://www.plantnames.unimelb.edu.au/Sorting/Solanum_eggplants.html target='_blank'
  44. Pottier-Alapetite, G. 1979-1981. Flore de la Tunisie: Angiospermes-Dicotyledones.
  45. Press, J. R. et al. 2000-. Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Nepal (on-line resource)
  46. Quézel, P. & S. Santa. 1962-1963. Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie.
  47. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  48. Schilling, E. E. 1981. Systematics of Solanum sect. Solanum (Solanaceae) in North America. Syst. Bot. 6:183. URL: www.aspt.net/systematic-botany
  49. Seed Regulatory and Testing Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A. State noxious-weed seed requirements recognized in the administration of the Federal Seed Act (updated annually).
  50. Symon, D. E. 1981. A revision of the genus Solanum in Australia. J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4:46.
  51. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964-1980. Flora europaea.
  52. Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds
  53. Wood, J. R. I. 1997. A handbook of the Yemen flora.
  54. 2018. Mid-Atlantic invasive plant species (on-line resource)

Check other web resources for Solanum nigrum L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • Flora del Conosur: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Conosur
  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • ABRS: Australian Biological Resources Study Flora of Australia online
  • SIBIS: South African National Biodiversity Institute's (SANBI) Integrated Biodiversity System
  • On-line Flora of Zimbabwe:
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Solanaceae Source: A global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:

  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=310124. Accessed 19 September 2019.