Jump to: SynonymsCommon NamesEconomic ImportanceDistributional RangeReferencesOther Web ReferencesImages

Taxon: Carya aquatica (F. Michx.) Elliott

Genus: Carya
Section: Apocarya
Family: Juglandaceae
Nomen number: 313342
Place of publication: Sketch bot. S. Carolina 2:627. 1824 (T. Nuttall, Gen. N. Amer. pl. 2:222. 1818, nom. nudum)
Link to protologue:
Comment: Nuttall listed only the epithet, and although he cited "Juglans species, L. Willd." under his genus Carya, this cannot be taken as an indirect reference to J. aquatica F. Michx. that was published after Willdenow
Name Verified on: 17-Mar-1988 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 47 (45 active, 1 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use), synonyms and invalid designations:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym, I invalid designation)

Common names:

  • bitter pecan  (Source: F NAmer) - English
  • water hickory  (Source: Trees US) - English
  • Bitter-Pekan  (Source: Zander Ency) - German
  • Wasser-Hickorynuß  (Source: Zander Ency) - German

Economic Importance:

  • Fuels: charcoal; fuelwood
  • Materials: wood

Distributional Range:


    Northern America
    • NORTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [Illinois (s.), Missouri (s.e.), Oklahoma]
    • SOUTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky (s.w.), Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina (e.), South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia (s.e.)]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [Texas]


  1. Browne, E. T. & R. Athey. 1992. Vascular plants of Kentucky: an annotated checklist Note: lists as Carya aquatica (F. Michx.) Nutt.
  2. Clewell, A. F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida panhandle Note: lists as Carya aquatica (F. Michx.) Nutt.
  3. Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas Note: lists as Carya aquatica (F. Michx.) Nutt.
  4. Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Note: mentions
  5. Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen
  6. FNA Editorial Committee. 1993-. Flora of North America. Note: lists as Carya aquatica (F. Michx.) Nutt.
  7. Fowells, H. A. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States.
  8. Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1979-1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States, 2 vol. Note: lists as Carya aquatica (F. Michx.) Nutt.
  9. Grauke, L. J. & M. A. Mendoza-Herrera. 2012. Population structure in the genus Carya. Acta Hort. 948:143-158.
  10. Grauke, L. J. & T. E. Thompson. 2003. Rootstock development in temperate nut crops. Acta Hort. 622:553-566.
  11. Jones, G. N. & G. D. Fuller. 1955. Vascular plants of Illinois. Note: lists as Carya aquatica (F. Michx.) Nutt.
  12. Little, E. L., Jr. 1978. Important forest trees of the United States
  13. Little, E. L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees, Agric. Handb. 541
  14. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  15. Radford, A. E. et al. 1964. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Note: lists as Carya aquatica (F. Michx.) Nutt.
  16. Smith, E. B. 1978. An atlas and annotated list of the vascular plants of Arkansas Note: lists as Carya aquatica (F. Michx.) Nutt.
  17. Steyermark, J. A. 1977. Flora of Missouri. Note: lists as Carya aquatica (F. Michx.) Nutt.
  18. Stone, D. E. et al. 1964. Morphological and chemical evidence of the hybrid nature of bitter pecan, Carya × lecontei. Brittonia 17:97-106.
  19. Wofford, B. E. Database of Tennessee vascular plants (on-line resource). URL: https://herbarium.utk.edu/vascular/vascular-database.php?CategoryID=Dicots&FamilyID=Juglandaceae&GenusID=Carya&SpeciesID=aquatica target='_blank'
  20. Wunderlin, R. P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida Note: lists as Carya aquatica (F. Michx.) Nutt.
  21. Zhang, J.-B. et al. 2013. Integrated fossil and molecular data reveal the biogeographic diversification of the Eastern Asian-Eastern North American disjunct hickory genus (Carya Nutt.). PLoS One 8(7):e70449.
  22. 2018. Oklahoma vascular plant database

Check other web resources for Carya aquatica (F. Michx.) Elliott :

  • Flora of North America: Collaborative Floristic Effort of North American Botanists
  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.


  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=313342. Accessed 3 June 2020.