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Taxon: Solanum viarum Dunal

Genus: Solanum
Subgenus: Leptostemonum
Section: Acanthophora
Family: Solanaceae
Subfamily: Solanoideae
Tribe: Solaneae
Nomen number: 317433
Place of publication: A. L. P. P. de Candolle, Prodr. 13(1):240. 1852
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 29-Nov-2010 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 4 (4 active, 3 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Medicines: source of solasodine (fide Solan III:17. 1991) source of solasodine (used to produce steroidal hormones)
  • Weed:

Distributional Range:


    Southern America
    • BRAZIL: Brazil [Acre, Amazonas, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rondônia, Distrito Federal]
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina, [Chaco, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Misiones, Santa Fe] Paraguay, Uruguay


    • Africa

    • CHINA: China [Yunnan Sheng, Xizang Zizhiqu]

    • INDO-CHINA: Myanmar

    • AUSTRALIA: Australia [New South Wales]

    Northern America
    • Mexico, United States (s.e.)

    Southern America
    • CARIBBEAN: West Indies
    • CENTRAL AMERICA: Honduras


  1. Babu, C. R. & F. N. Hepper. 1979. Taxonomy and nomenclature of Solanum khasianum and some of its relatives. Kew Bull. 34:409.
  2. Babu, C. R. 1971. The identity of Solanum khasianum Cl. var. chatterjeeanum Sen Gupta (Solanaceae). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 67:610.
  3. Bryson, C. T. & J. D. Byrd, Jr. 1994. Solanum viarum (Solanaceae), new to Mississippi. Sida 16:382.
  4. Bryson, C. T. & J. D. Byrd, Jr. 2007. Biology, reproductive potential, and winter survival of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum). Weed Technol. 21:791-795.
  5. Coile, N. 1993. Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal: the plant from hell.. Bot. Circ. Div. Pl. Industr. Florida 27:1-4.
  6. Conant, P. et al. 1997. Appendix. Selected plant species interfering with resource management goals in North American natural areas. Assessment and management of plant invasions. 255-267.
  7. Deb, D. B. 1979. Solanaceae in India. The biology and taxonomy of the Solanacae 105.
  8. Freire de Varvalho, L. d'A. 1997. Diversidade taxonômica das Solanáceas no estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil) – II - Lycianthes e Solanum. Albertoa 4:300.
  9. Hosking, J. R. 2010. pers. comm. via e-mail on 31 Aug Note: re. occurrence in Australia
  10. Kammathy. R. V. et al. 1974. Pharmacognostic studies on the genus Solanun Linn. I. Bull. Bot. Surv. India 13:224.
  11. Levin, R. A. et al. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships among the "spiny solanums" Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum, Solanaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 93:157-169.
  12. Miller, L. M. F. & M. E. Davies. 1979. The characteristics of solasodine accumulation in C. B. Clarke var. Chatterjeeanum Sengupta and S. laciniatum Ait. grown under field conditions in Birmingham. The biology and taxonomy of the Solanacae 231.
  13. Mullahey, J. J. 1996. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a biological pollutant threatening Florida. Castanea 61:255-260.
  14. Nee, M. 1991. Synopsis of Solanum section Acanthophora: a group of interest for glycoalkaloids. Solanaceae III: taxonomy, chemistry, evolution 264.
  15. Nee, M. 1999. Synopsis of Solanum in the New World. Solanaceae IV: advances in biology and utilization 328.
  16. PBI Solanum Project. Solanaceae source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family (on-line resource).
  17. Plant Protection and Quarantine Office. United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Federal noxious weed list (on-line resource).
  18. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  19. Reed, M. D. et al. 2004. Solanum viarum (Solanaceae) - tropical soda-apple - confirmed from Texas. Sida 21:1171-1174.
  20. Reitz, R., ed. 1965-. Flora ilustrada catarinense.
  21. USDA National Agricultural Library. National Invasive Species Information Center (on-line resource). URL: http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/plants/tropicalsoda.shtml target='_blank'
  22. Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds
  23. Welman, W. G. 2003. The genus Solanum (Solanaceae) in southern Africa: subgenus Leptostemonum, the introduced sections Acanthophora and Torva. Bothalia 33:10-11.
  24. Whalen, M. D. 1984. Conspectus of species groups in Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum. Gentes Herbarum 12:253.
  25. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  26. Wunderlin, R. P. et al. 1993. Solanum viarum and S. tampicense (Solanaceae): two weedy species new to Florida and the United States. Sida 15:605-611.
  27. Zuloaga, F. O. & O. Morrone, eds. 1996, 1999. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. I. Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Angiospermae (Monocotyledonae), II. Dicotyledonae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60, 74. Note: = Solanum reflexum Schrank
  28. 2018. Mid-Atlantic invasive plant species (on-line resource)

Check other web resources for Solanum viarum Dunal :

  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • Flora del Conosur: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Conosur
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Solanaceae Source: A global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=317433. Accessed 23 July 2019.