Jump to: SynonymsCommon NamesEconomic ImportanceDistributional RangeReferencesOther Web References

Taxon: Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.

 
Genus: Silybum
Family: Asteraceae (alt.Compositae)
Subfamily: Carduoideae
Tribe: Cardueae
Subtribe: Carduinae
Nomen number: 33952
Place of publication: Fruct. sem. pl. 2:378. 1791
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 30-Sep-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is:
Accessions: 2 (2 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Synonyms:

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Bee plants: honey production
  • Food additives:
  • Medicines: source of silymarin; source of silymarin
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant; potential seed contaminant

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Portugal [Madeira Islands]
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Cyprus, Egypt, [Sinai] Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation [Kurgan]
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India, [Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh] Pakistan

    Europe
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (incl. Crete), Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Macedonia, Montenegro
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Crosica), Portugal, Spain (incl. Baleares)


    Cultivated (also cult.)

    Adventive

    Europe
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Czech Republic, Germany, Netherlands
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Estonia, Latvia
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Serbia


    Naturalized

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Portugal, [Azores] Spain [Canary Islands]
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Eritrea, Ethiopia
    • EAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Kenya
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: South Africa [Eastern Cape, Gauteng]

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Romania, Slovenia

    Northern America
    • EASTERN CANADA: Canada [New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec]
    • WESTERN CANADA: Canada [Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan]
    • NORTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Connecticut, Indiana, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, West Virginia]
    • NORTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Oregon, Washington]
    • SOUTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [New Mexico, Texas]
    • SOUTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Arizona, California, Nevada]
    • NORTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Baja Norte]

    Southern America
    • BRAZIL: Brazil [Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina]
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Ecuador, Peru
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina, Chile, Uruguay


References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on www.skud.info). 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  2. Allan, H. H. B. et al. Flora of New Zealand. (F NZeal)
  3. Bisset, N. G., ed. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals. A handbook for practice on a scientific basis. 1994 (Herbal Drugs)
  4. Boulos, L. Flora of Egypt. 1999- (F Egypt)
  5. Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (L Peru)
  6. Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. 1998 (Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  7. Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. 1970 (F Tex)
  8. Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. (F Turk)
  9. Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  10. Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  11. Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  12. Farnsworth, N. R. & D. D. Soejarto Global importance of medicinal plants (unpublished draft manuscript rev. 23, 1988) (Import Medicinal Pl)
  13. FNA Editorial Committee Flora of North America. (F NAmer)
  14. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  15. Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource). (L Brasil Online)
  16. Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14. 2003 (Pl SAfr ed2)
  17. Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. (Glea Cron)
  18. Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  19. Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards Flora of Ethiopia. 1989- (and Eritrea. 2000) (F Ethiop)
  20. Hnatiuk, R. J. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11. (L Aust)
  21. Holm, L. et al. A geographical atlas of world weeds. 1979 (Atlas WWeed)
  22. Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource). (Pacif I Ecosyst Risk)
  23. Instituto de Botánica Darwinion Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares. (F ConoSur)
  24. Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) Australian plant common name database (on-line resource). (Aust Pl Common Names)
  25. Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (L Ecuador)
  26. Kartesz, J. T. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. (L US Can ed2)
  27. Kingsbury, J. M. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. (Kingsbury)
  28. Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. (F USSR)
  29. Krasnoborov, I. M., ed. Flora of Siberia (English translation). 2000- (F Siberia)
  30. Lazarides, M. & B. Hince CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia. 1993 (Econ Pl Aust)
  31. Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn)
  32. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. (Hortus 3)
  33. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  34. Ortega-Sada, J. L. Flora de interes apicola y polinizacion de cultivos. (F Int Apico)
  35. Parsons, W. T. & E. G. Cuthbertson Noxious weeds of Australia. 1992 (Noxweed Aust)
  36. Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  37. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  38. Radford, A. E. et al., eds. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States. (F SE US)
  39. Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. (F Iran)
  40. Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  41. Scoggan, H. J. The flora of Canada, 4 vol. (F Canada)
  42. Seed Regulatory and Testing Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A. State noxious-weed seed requirements recognized in the administration of the Federal Seed Act (updated annually). (State Noxweed Seed)
  43. Sharma, B. D. et al., eds. Flora of India. (F India)
  44. Stewart, R. An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of West Pakistan and Kashmir. 1972 (L Pak)
  45. Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. Flora of tropical East Africa. (F TE Afr)
  46. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. (F Eur)
  47. Vibrans, H., ed. Malezas de México (on-line resource). (Malezas Mex)
  48. Weber, E. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. 2003 (Invasive Pl Spec)
  49. Wiggins, I. L. Flora of Baja California. (F Baja)
  50. Zohary, M. & N. Feinbrun-Dothan Flora palaestina. (F Palest)

Check other web resources for Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Euro+Med Plantbase: Information Resource for Euro-Mediterranean Plant Diversity
  • Flora of North America: Collaborative Floristic Effort of North American Botanists
  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • Flora del Conosur: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Conosur
  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • SIBIS: South African National Biodiversity Institute's (SANBI) Integrated Biodiversity System
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=33952. Accessed 15 November 2018.