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Taxon: Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.

 
Genus: Silybum
Family: Asteraceae (alt.Compositae)
Subfamily: Carduoideae
Tribe: Cardueae
Subtribe: Carduinae
Nomen number: 33952
Place of publication: Fruct. sem. pl. 2:378. 1791
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 30-Sep-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 2 (2 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Bee plants: honey production
  • Food additives:
  • Medicines: source of silymarin; source of silymarin
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant; potential seed contaminant

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Portugal [Madeira Islands]
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Cyprus, Egypt, [Sinai] Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation [Kurgan]
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India, [Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh] Pakistan

    Europe
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (incl. Crete), Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Macedonia, Montenegro
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Crosica), Portugal, Spain (incl. Baleares)


    Cultivated (also cult.)

    Adventive

    Europe
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Czech Republic, Germany, Netherlands
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Estonia, Latvia
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Serbia


    Naturalized

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Portugal, [Azores] Spain [Canary Islands]
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Eritrea, Ethiopia
    • EAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Kenya
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: South Africa [Eastern Cape, Gauteng]

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Romania, Slovenia

    Northern America
    • EASTERN CANADA: Canada [Québec, Nova Scotia, Ontario, New Brunswick]
    • WESTERN CANADA: Canada [Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia]
    • NORTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Connecticut, Indiana, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, West Virginia]
    • NORTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Oregon, Washington]
    • SOUTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [New Mexico, Texas]
    • SOUTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Arizona, California, Nevada]
    • NORTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Baja California (Norte)]

    Southern America
    • BRAZIL: Brazil [Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina]
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Ecuador, Peru
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina, Chile, Uruguay


References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Allan, H. H. B. et al. 1961-. Flora of New Zealand.
  3. Bisset, N. G., ed. 1994. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals. A handbook for practice on a scientific basis CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Note: translation of German edition by M. Wichtl, ed.
  4. Boulos, L. 1999-. Flora of Egypt
  5. Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45
  6. Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson. 1998. Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning Note: poisonous
  7. Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas
  8. Darbyshire, S. J. 2003. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 271.
  9. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  10. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  11. Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen
  12. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  13. Farnsworth, N. R. & D. D. Soejarto. 1988. Global importance of medicinal plants (unpublished draft manuscript rev. 23)
  14. FNA Editorial Committee. 1993-. Flora of North America.
  15. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Silybum+marianum&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  16. Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource).
  17. Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14
  18. Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada.
  19. Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6
  20. Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards. 1989-. Flora of Ethiopia Note: Eritrea added in 2000
  21. Hnatiuk, R. J. 1990. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11.
  22. Holm, L. et al. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds
  23. Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource).
  24. Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares.
  25. Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  26. Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75
  27. Kartesz, J. T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland.
  28. Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. Note: poisonous
  29. Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934-1964. Flora SSSR.
  30. Krasnoborov, I. M., ed. 2000-. Flora of Siberia (English translation)
  31. Lazarides, M. & B. Hince. 1993. CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia
  32. Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2
  33. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  34. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  35. Ortega-Sada, J. L. 1987. Flora de interes apicola y polinizacion de cultivos.
  36. Parsons, W. T. & E. G. Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia Inkata Press, Melbourne, Australia.
  37. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  38. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  39. Radford, A. E. et al., eds. 1980-. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States.
  40. Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963-. Flora iranica.
  41. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  42. Scoggan, H. J. 1978-1979. The flora of Canada, 4 vol.
  43. Seed Regulatory and Testing Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A. State noxious-weed seed requirements recognized in the administration of the Federal Seed Act (updated annually).
  44. Sharma, B. D. et al., eds. 1993-. Flora of India.
  45. Stewart, R. 1972. An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of West Pakistan and Kashmir
  46. Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952-. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  47. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964-1980. Flora europaea.
  48. Vibrans, H., ed. Malezas de México (on-line resource). URL: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/asteraceae/silybum-marianum/fichas/pagina1.htm target='_blank'
  49. Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds
  50. Wiggins, I. L. 1980. Flora of Baja California.
  51. Zohary, M. & N. Feinbrun-Dothan. 1966-. Flora palaestina.

Check other web resources for Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Euro+Med Plantbase: Information Resource for Euro-Mediterranean Plant Diversity
  • Flora of North America: Collaborative Floristic Effort of North American Botanists
  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • Flora del Conosur: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Conosur
  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • SIBIS: South African National Biodiversity Institute's (SANBI) Integrated Biodiversity System
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=33952. Accessed 24 October 2019.