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Taxon: Symphytum officinale L.

 
Genus: Symphytum
Family: Boraginaceae
Subfamily: Boraginoideae
Tribe: Boragineae
Subtribe: Boragininae
Nomen number: 36020
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:136. 1753
Link to protologue:
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 02-Mar-1995 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 4 (1 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

  • boneset  (Source: Hortus 3) - English
  • comfrey  (Source: Food Feed Crops US) - English
  • common comfrey  (Source: World Econ Pl) - English
  • consound  (Source: Dict Rehm) - English
  • healingherb  (Source: Hortus 3) - English
  • knitbone  (Source: Pulmonaria) - English
  • slippery-root  (Source: Pulmonaria) - English
  • comfrey    - English (Canada)
  • consoude officinale  (Source: Dict Rehm) - French
  • grande consoude  (Source: Dict Rehm) - French
  • consoude officinale   - French (Canada)
  • echter Beinwell  (Source: Pulmonaria) - German
  • gemeiner Beinwell  (Source: Dict Rehm) - German
  • gewöhnlicher Beinwell  (Source: Zander Ency) - German
  • consolda maggiore  (Source: F Ital) - Italian
  • consolda-maior  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Portuguese
  • consuelda  (Source: Pulmonaria) - Spanish
  • consuelda mayor  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Spanish
  • äkta vallört  (Source: Kulturvaxtdatabas) - Swedish
  • okopnik lekarstvennyi  (Source: Pulmonaria) - Transliterated Russian

Economic Importance:

  • Animal food: forage
  • Environmental: soil improver (a green manure valued for cultivating potatoes and tomatoes in gardens)
  • Materials: lipids
  • Medicines:
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals; mammals; mammals

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation-Western Siberia [Western Siberia (w.)]
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Kazakhstan

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Moldova, Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Romania, Serbia, Slovenia
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France, Spain


    Cultivated (also cult.)

References:

  1. Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). URL: http://www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/related/Symphytum_officinale/ target='_blank'
  2. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  3. Bennett, M. 2003. Pulmonarias and the Borage family 181.
  4. Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson. 1998. Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning Note: poisonous
  5. Darbyshire, S. J. 2003. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 202.
  6. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  7. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  8. Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen
  9. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  10. Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ed. 2
  11. Greuter, W. et al., eds. 1984-. Med-Checklist.
  12. Gviniashvili, T. N. 1976. Kavkazskie predstaviteli roda Symphytum L. (Boraginaceae Juss.). 122-125.
  13. Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening
  14. Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934-1964. Flora SSSR.
  15. Lampe, K. F. & M. A. McCann. 1985. AMA handbook of poisonous and injurious plants Note: poisonous
  16. Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2
  17. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  18. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  19. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  20. Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource).
  21. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  22. Pignatti, S. 1982. Flora d'Italia.
  23. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  24. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964-1980. Flora europaea.
  25. Wichens, G. E. 1969. A revision of Symphytum in Turkey and adjacent areas. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 29:158.
  26. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).

Check other web resources for Symphytum officinale L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:

  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=36020. Accessed 22 August 2019.