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Taxon: Trapa natans L.

 
Genus: Trapa
Family: Lythraceae
Nomen number: 36824
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:120. 1753
Link to protologue:
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 05-May-2017 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 5 (0 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

  • bullnut  (Source: NPB State Noxweed) - English
  • water-chestnut  (Source: Dict Econ Pl) - English
  • European water-chestnut   - English (Canada)
  • châtaigne d’eau    - French (Canada)
  • sjönöt  (Source: Kulturvaxtdatabas) - Swedish

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental
  • Human food:
  • Weed:

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Tunisia
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Sudan
    • EAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Tanzania, Uganda
    • WEST TROPICAL AFRICA: Guinea-Bissau
    • SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA: Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: Botswana, Namibia, South Africa [KwaZulu-Natal]

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Turkey (n.w.)
    • CAUCASUS: Georgia
    • CHINA: China [Anhui Sheng, Zhejiang Sheng, Fujian Sheng, Heilongjiang Sheng, Henan Sheng, Hebei Sheng, Hunan Sheng, Hubei Sheng, Jiangxi Sheng, Jiangsu Sheng, Jilin Sheng, Guangdong Sheng, Guizhou Sheng, Liaoning Sheng, Shandong Sheng, Shaanxi Sheng, Sichuan Sheng, Yunnan Sheng, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu, Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu, Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu, Xizang Zizhiqu, Hainan Sheng]
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India, Pakistan
    • INDO-CHINA: Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
    • MALESIA: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines

    Europe
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France, Spain (incl. Baleares)


    Cultivated (also cult.)

    Naturalized (widely natzd. elsewhere)

References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Aubréville, A. et al., eds. 1960-. Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viet-Nam.
  3. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959-. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  4. Darbyshire, S. J. 2003. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 178-179.
  5. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  6. Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage
  7. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  8. Exell, A. W. et al., eds. 1960-. Flora zambesiaca.
  9. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Trapa+natans&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  10. Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ed. 2
  11. Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening
  12. Keay, R. W. J. & F. N. Hepper. 1953-1972. Flora of west tropical Africa, ed. 2.
  13. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  14. Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970-. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  15. National Plant Board. 2008-. National Plant Board federal and state quarantine summaries
  16. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  17. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  18. Pottier-Alapetite, G. 1979-1981. Flore de la Tunisie: Angiospermes-Dicotyledones.
  19. Quézel, P. & S. Santa. 1962-1963. Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie.
  20. Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963-. Flora iranica.
  21. Steward, A. N. 1958. Manual of vascular plants of the lower Yangtze valley.
  22. Takano, A, & Y. Kadono. 2005. Allozyme variations and classification of Trapa (Trapaceae) in Japan. Aquatic Bot. 83:108-118.
  23. Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952-. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  24. Uphof, J. C. T. 1968. Dictionary of economic plants, ed. 2.
  25. USDA National Agricultural Library. National Invasive Species Information Center (on-line resource). URL: http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/aquatics/waterchestnut.shtml target='_blank'
  26. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  27. 2018. Mid-Atlantic invasive plant species (on-line resource)

Check other web resources for Trapa natans L. :

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • SIBIS: South African National Biodiversity Institute's (SANBI) Integrated Biodiversity System
  • On-line Flora of Zimbabwe:
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:

  • Embryo drawing: U.S. National Seed Herbarium drawing
  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=36824. Accessed 13 November 2019.