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Taxon: Xanthium spinosum L.

 
Genus: Xanthium
Family: Asteraceae (alt.Compositae)
Nomen number: 42071
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:987. 1753
Link to protologue:
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 25-Mar-2012 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 0 (0 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals; mammals; mammals; mammals; mammals
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant; potential seed contaminant; potential seed contaminant; potential seed contaminant

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Southern America
    • BRAZIL: Brazil [Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina]
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay


    Naturalized

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Portugal, [Azores] Spain [Canary Islands]
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Egypt, Libya
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Eritrea, Ethiopia
    • SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA: Zimbabwe
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa
    • WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN: Mauritius, Reunion

    Asia-Temperate
    • ARABIAN PENINSULA: Yemen
    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Egypt, [Sinai] Iran, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation [Altay, Tyumen (s.)]
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
    • RUSSIAN FAR EAST: Russian Federation [Primorye]
    • CHINA: China [Henan Sheng, Beijing Shi]
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan [Honshu]

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India
    • PAPUASIA: Papua New Guinea

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand

    Europe
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Hungary, Poland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Moldova, Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bulgaria, Italy
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France, Spain

    Northern America
    • EASTERN CANADA: Canada [Québec, Ontario, New Brunswick]
    • WESTERN CANADA: Canada [Saskatchewan]
    • NORTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, West Virginia]
    • NORTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska]
    • NORTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington]
    • SOUTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [New Mexico, Texas]
    • SOUTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah]
    • Mexico


    Other (exact native range in Americas obscure)

References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Allan, H. H. B. et al. 1961-. Flora of New Zealand.
  3. Bosser, J. M. et al., eds. 1976-. Flores des Mascareignes.
  4. Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45 Note: = Acanthoxanthium spinosum (L.) Fourr.
  5. Cronquist, A. et al. 1972-. Intermountain flora.
  6. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  7. Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen
  8. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  9. Everest, S. L. 1981. Poisonous plants of Australia. Note: poisonous
  10. FNA Editorial Committee. 1993-. Flora of North America.
  11. Foreman, D. B. & N. G. Walsh. 1993-. Flora of Victoria.
  12. Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource).
  13. Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14
  14. Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada.
  15. Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. Note: re. Brazilian common names
  16. Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards. 1989-. Flora of Ethiopia Note: Eritrea added in 2000
  17. Henderson, L. 2001. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute, Handbook 12
  18. Henderson, M. et al. 1987. Declared weeds and alien invader plants in South Africa. Botanical Research Institute, bulletin 413
  19. Holm, L. et al. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds
  20. Huang, Q. Q. et al. 2009. Identifying the most noxious invasive plants in China: role of geographical origin, life form and means of introduction. Biodivers. & Conservation 18:305-316.
  21. Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource).
  22. Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares.
  23. Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  24. Iwatsuki, K. et al. 1993-. Flora of Japan.
  25. Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75
  26. Jørgensen, P. M., ed. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia (Catalogue of vascular plants of Bolivia) (on-line resource).
  27. Kellerman, T. S. et al. 1988. Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of livestock in Southern Africa Note: poisonous
  28. Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. Note: poisonous
  29. Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934-1964. Flora SSSR.
  30. Krasnoborov, I. M., ed. 2000-. Flora of Siberia (English translation)
  31. Lazarides, M. & B. Hince. 1993. CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia
  32. Löve, D. & P. Dansereau. 1959. Biosystematic studies on Xanthium: taxonomic appraisal and ecological status. Canad. J. Bot. 37:204.
  33. McVaugh, R. 1983-. Flora Novo-Galiciana.
  34. Pammel, L. H. 1911. Manual of poisonous plants. Note: poisonous
  35. Parsons, W. T. & E. G. Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia Inkata Press, Melbourne, Australia. Note: mentions
  36. Radford, A. E. et al., eds. 1980-. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States.
  37. Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963-. Flora iranica.
  38. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  39. Scoggan, H. J. 1978-1979. The flora of Canada, 4 vol.
  40. Sell, P. & G. Murrell. 1996-. Flora of Great Britain and Ireland.
  41. Sharma, B. D. et al., eds. 1993-. Flora of India.
  42. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964-1980. Flora europaea.
  43. Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds
  44. Wood, J. R. I. 1997. A handbook of the Yemen flora.
  45. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  46. 2018. Mid-Atlantic invasive plant species (on-line resource)

Check other web resources for Xanthium spinosum L. :

Images:

  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=42071. Accessed 15 July 2019.