Taxon: Xanthium strumarium L.

 
Genus: Xanthium
Family: Asteraceae (alt.Compositae)
Nomen number: 42072
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:987. 1753
Comment: [treated here in the broad sense]
Name Verified on: 25-Mar-2012 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 25-Mar-2012
Species priority site is:
Accessions: 2 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Medicines: folklore (fide Healing Pl India, as Xanthium indicum)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Kellerman et al.; Pammel; BernhardSmith; Kingsbury; Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide Econ Pl Aust, as X. orientale; Invasive Pl Spec; Weeds SAfr 2001)

Distributional Range:

    Other:

    . exact native range obscure

    Native:

  • Africa

    • Northern Africa: Egypt; Morocco
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia
    • China: China - Anhui, - Fujian, - Guangdong, - Guangxi, - Guizhou, - Hainan, - Hebei, - Heilongjiang, - Henan, - Hubei, - Hunan, - Jiangsu, - Jiangxi, - Jilin, - Liaoning, - Nei Monggol, - Ningxia, - Qinghai, - Shaanxi, - Shandong, - Shanxi, - Sichuan, - Xinjiang, - Xizang, - Yunnan, - Zhejiang
    • Eastern Asia: Japan; Korea; Taiwan
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Primorye, - Sakhalin
    • Siberia: Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia - Eastern Siberia; Russian Federation-Western Siberia - Western Siberia
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Egypt - Sinai; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: India
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine - Krym
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain
  • Northern America

    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, - Nova Scotia, - Ontario, - Prince Edward Island, - Quebec
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, - Iowa, - Kansas, - Minnesota, - Missouri, - Nebraska, - North Dakota, - Oklahoma, - South Dakota, - Wisconsin
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, - Indiana, - Maine, - Massachusetts, - Michigan, - New Hampshire, - New Jersey, - New York, - Ohio, - Pennsylvania, - Rhode Island, - Vermont, - West Virginia
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Baja Norte, - Baja Sur, - Chihuahua, - Coahuila, - Durango, - Nuevo Leon, - San Luis Potosi, - Sinaloa, - Sonora, - Tamaulipas, - Zacatecas
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, - Idaho, - Montana, - Oregon, - Washington, - Wyoming
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, - Texas
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, - Arkansas, - Delaware, - District of Columbia, - Florida, - Georgia, - Kentucky, - Louisiana, - Maryland, - Mississippi, - North Carolina, - South Carolina, - Tennessee, - Virginia
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico - Aguascalientes, - Chiapas, - Colima, - Federal District, - Guanajuato, - Guerrero, - Hidalgo, - Jalisco, - Mexico, - Michoacan, - Morelos, - Nayarit, - Oaxaca, - Puebla, - Queretaro, - Veracruz, - Yucatan
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, - California, - Nevada, - Utah
    • Subarctic America: United States - Alaska
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, - British Columbia, - Manitoba, - Saskatchewan
  • Southern America

    • Northern South America: Venezuela

  • Naturalized:

  • Africa

    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores, - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Eritrea; Ethiopia; Somalia; Sudan
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Morocco; Tunisia
    • South Tropical Africa: Mozambique; Zimbabwe
    • Southern Africa: Botswana; Lesotho; South Africa; Swaziland
    • West Tropical Africa: Nigeria
    • Western Indian Ocean: Mauritius; Reunion
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Arabian Peninsula: Yemen
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Georgia; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • Western Asia: Israel; Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: Nepal
    • Indo-China: Thailand
    • Malesia: Philippines
  • Australasia

    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: Portugal; Spain
  • Pacific

    • North-Central Pacific: U.S. Outlying Islands - Midway Islands; United States - Hawaii
    • South-Central Pacific: French Polynesia
    • Southwestern Pacific: Fiji; New Caledonia
  • Southern America

    • Caribbean: Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda - Antigua; Bahamas; Cuba; Dominica; Hispaniola; Martinique; Puerto Rico; St. Kitts and Nevis - Nevis; Virgin Islands (British) - Tortola; Virgin Islands (U.S.)

References:

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Synonyms:

Check other web resources for Xanthium strumarium L. :

Images:

  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruit inner wall: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image