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Taxon: Xanthium strumarium L.

 
Genus: Xanthium
Family: Asteraceae (alt.Compositae)
Nomen number: 42072
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:987. 1753
Link to protologue:
Comment: [treated here in the broad sense]
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 25-Mar-2012 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 2 (2 active, 1 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Medicines: folklore (fide Healing Pl India, as Xanthium indicum)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals; mammals; mammals; mammals
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide Econ Pl Aust, as X. orientale; Invasive Pl Spec; Weeds SAfr 2001)

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Egypt, Morocco

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Egypt, [Sinai] Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia, [Eastern Siberia] Russian Federation-Western Siberia [Western Siberia]
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
    • MONGOLIA: Mongolia
    • RUSSIAN FAR EAST: Russian Federation [Primorye, Sakhalin]
    • CHINA: China [Anhui Sheng, Fujian Sheng, Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu, Guizhou Sheng, Hebei Sheng, Heilongjiang Sheng, Hubei Sheng, Hunan Sheng, Jiangsu Sheng, Jiangxi Sheng, Jilin Sheng, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu, Ningxia Huizi Zizhiqu, Qinghai Sheng, Shanxi Sheng, Sichuan Sheng, Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu, Xizang Zizhiqu, Yunnan Sheng, Zhejiang Sheng, Guangdong Sheng, Henan Sheng, Liaoning Sheng, Shaanxi Sheng, Shandong Sheng, Hainan Sheng]
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan, Korea, Taiwan

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India

    Europe
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine [Krym]
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (incl. Crete), Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Corsica), Portugal, Spain

    Northern America
    • SUBARCTIC AMERICA: United States [Alaska]
    • EASTERN CANADA: Canada [Québec, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick]
    • WESTERN CANADA: Canada [Saskatchewan, Alberta, Manitoba, British Columbia]
    • NORTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Connecticut, Indiana, Maine (s.), Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia]
    • NORTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin]
    • NORTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming]
    • SOUTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, District of Columbia]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [New Mexico, Texas]
    • SOUTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah]
    • NORTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Durango, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas, Baja California (Norte), Baja California Sur]
    • SOUTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Colima, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México, Michoacán de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, Yucatán, Ciudad de México]

    Southern America
    • NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Venezuela


    Naturalized

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Portugal, [Azores, Madeira Islands] Spain [Canary Islands]
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan
    • EAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Kenya, Tanzania
    • WEST TROPICAL AFRICA: Nigeria
    • SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA: Mozambique, Zimbabwe
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, South Africa
    • WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN: Mauritius, Reunion

    Asia-Temperate
    • ARABIAN PENINSULA: Yemen
    • WESTERN ASIA: Israel, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Georgia, Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: Nepal
    • INDO-CHINA: Thailand
    • MALESIA: Philippines

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (incl. Crete), Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: Portugal, Spain (incl. Baleares)

    Pacific
    • NORTH-CENTRAL PACIFIC: United States [Hawaii, United States Minor Outlying Islands]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL PACIFIC: French Polynesia
    • SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC: Fiji, New Caledonia

    Southern America
    • CARIBBEAN: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, [Antigua] Bahamas, Cuba, Dominica, Hispaniola, Martinique, St. Kitts and Nevis, [Nevis] United States, [Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, U.S.] Virgin Islands (British) [Tortola]


    Other (exact native range obscure)

References:

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  10. Correll, D. S. & H. B. Correll. 1982. Flora of the Bahama archipelago.
  11. Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas
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  20. Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. Note: re. Brazilian common names
  21. Grubov, V. I. 2001. Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia
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Check other web resources for Xanthium strumarium L. :

Images:

  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruit inner wall: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=42072. Accessed 21 July 2019.