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Taxon: Capsicum chinense Jacq.

Genus: Capsicum
Family: Solanaceae
Subfamily: Solanoideae
Tribe: Capsiceae
Nomen number: 8910
Place of publication: Hort. bot. vindob. 3:38, t. 67. 1777
Link to protologue: https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/307184
Name Verified on: 22-Jan-1997 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 518 (486 active, 476 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring
  • Medicines: folklore

Distributional Range:


    Southern America
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Colombia (s.)


    Southern America
    • BRAZIL: Brazil [Amazonas (possible wild populations)]


  1. Albrecht, E. et al. 2012. Genetic diversity and population structure of Capsicum baccatum genetic resources. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 59:517-538. Note: for understanding the domestication of Capsicum baccatum this study included five samples of C. chinense since they grow in sympatry in part of their geographical ranges
  2. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  3. Bernal, R., S. R. Gradstein & M. Celis. 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. Note: cultivated
  4. Bhavani, B. et al. 2020. Genetics of fruit oleoresin and capsaicin contents in chilli inter-species (Capsicum annuum × C. chinense) cross. Pl. Genet. Resources Charact. Util. 1-3. DOI: doi:10.1017/S1479262119000418
  5. Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45 Note: lists as "sinense"
  6. Carrizo García, C. et al. 2016. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae). Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 118:35-51.
  7. Carvalho, S. I. C. et al. 2014. Morphological and genetic relationships between wild and domesticated forms of peppers (Capsicum frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacquin). Genet. Molec. Res. 13:7447-7464.
  8. Costa Vilagelim, L. et al. 2009. Cross compatibility of domesticated hot pepper and cultivated sweet pepper. Crop Breed. Appl. Biotechnol. 9:37-44.
  9. D'Arcy, W. G. & W. H. Eshbaugh. 1974. New World peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae) North of Colombia. A résumé . Baileya 19:102.
  10. Di Dato, F. et al. 2015. Genetic diversity and assessment of markers linked to resistance and pungency genes in Capsicum germplasm. Euphytica 204:103-119. Note: Netherlands journal of plant breeding
  11. Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage
  12. Eshbaugh, W. H. 1993. Peppers: history and exploitation of a serendipitous new crop discovery. New crops 133.
  13. Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants Kampong Publications.
  14. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Capsicum+chinense&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  15. Heiser, C. B. & B. Pickersgill. 1969. Names for the cultivated Capsicum species (Solanaceae). Taxon 18:282.
  16. Ibiza, V. P. et al. 2012. Taxonomy and genetic diversity of domesticated Capsicum species in the Andean region. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 59:1077-1088.
  17. Jägger, M. et al. 2013. Guía de oportunidades de mercado para los ajíes nativos de Perú. Bioversity internationl. Bioversity International., The International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy. 1-70.
  18. Jørgensen, P. M., ed. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia (Catalogue of vascular plants of Bolivia) (on-line resource). Note: cultivated
  19. Kochieva, E. Z. et al. 2004. Assessment of genetic relationships in the genus Capsicum using different DNA marker systems. Proceedings of the XIIth EUCARPIA meeting on genetics and breeding of Capsicum and eggplant, Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands, 17-19 May, 2004
  20. Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2
  21. Libreros, D. et al. 2013. Catálogo de ajíes (Capsicum spp.) peruanos promisorios conservados en el banco de semillas del INIA - Perú. Bioversity internationl. Bioversity International., The International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy. 1-49.
  22. Mansfeld, R. 1959. Die Kulturpflanze, Beiheft 2. Note: lists as "sinense"
  23. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  24. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  25. Monteiro da Silva, C. E. et al. 2011. Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species. Crop Breed. Appl. Biotechnol. 11:241-249.
  26. Moreira P., A. F. et al. 2018. Genetic diversity, population structure and genetic parameters of fruit traits in Capsicum chinense. Sci. Hort. 236:1-9.
  27. Moscone, E. A. et al. 2007. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum - Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective. Acta Hort. 745:137-170.
  28. Moses, M. et al. 2014. Microsatellite based analysis of the genetic structure and diversity of Capsicum chinense in the Neotropics. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 61:741-755.
  29. Ortiz, R. et al. 2010. Classifying vegetable genetic resource - A case stusy with domesticated Capsicum spp.. Sci. Hort. 126:186-191.
  30. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  31. Pickersgill, B. et al. 1979. Numerical taxonomic studies on variation and domestication in some species of Capsicum. The biology and taxonomy of the Solanacae 679-699.
  32. Pickersgill, B. 1997. Genetic resources and breeding of Capsicum spp.. Euphytica 96:129-133. Note: Netherlands journal of plant breeding
  33. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  34. Rodriguez, J. M. et al. 1999. Variation among and within Capsicum species revealed by RAPD markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 99:147-156.
  35. Silvar, C. & C. A. García- González. 2016. Deciphering genetic diversity in the origins of pepper (Capsicum spp.) and comparison with worldwide variability. Crop Sci. (Madison) 56:1-11.
  36. Sudré, C. P. et al. 2010. Genetic variability in domesticated Capsicum spp. as assessed by morphological and agronomic data in mixed statistical analysis. Genet. Molec. Res. 9:283-294.
  37. Sui, Y. H. & N. B. Hu. 2015. Acquisition, identification and analysis of an interspecific Capsicum hybrid (C. annuum × C. chinense). J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 90:31-38. Note: hybrids obtained by embryo rescue technique
  38. Walsh, B. M. & S. B. Hoot. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of Capsicum (Solanaceae) using DNA sequences from two noncoding regions: The chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer region and nuclear waxy introns. Int. J. Pl. Sci. 162:1409-1418. Note: it commented that Capsicum chinense "does not have any true wild form"
  39. Woodson, R. E. & R. W. Schery, eds. 1943-1980. Flora of Panama.

Check other web resources for Capsicum chinense Jacq. :

  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=8910. Accessed 10 July 2020.