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Taxon: Phleum pratense L.

 
Genus: Phleum
Family: Poaceae (alt.Gramineae)
Subfamily: Pooideae
Tribe: Poeae
Subtribe: Poinae
Nomen number: 28019
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:59. 1753
Link to protologue: https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/358078
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 12-May-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 843 (546 active, 372 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Animal food: fodder; fodder; fodder; fodder; forage; forage; forage
  • Environmental: soil improver
  • Vertebrate poisons:
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant; potential seed contaminant

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria (n.), Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Iran, Iraq, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russian Federation, [Dagestan] Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation [Buryatia, Gorno-Altay, Tuva, Yakutia-Sakha (s.), Altay, Krasnoyarsk (s.), Chita, Irkutsk (s.), Kemerovo, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Tyumen (s.)]
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Kazakhstan (s.e.), Kyrgyzstan
    • MONGOLIA: Mongolia
    • CHINA: China (n.)

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India (n.), Pakistan (n.)

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, [Saratov, Volgograd] Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Romania, Serbia, Slovenia
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Corsica), Portugal, Spain


    Cultivated

    Asia-Temperate
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: Bhutan

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Finland

    Northern America
    • Canada


    Naturalized

    Africa
    • WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN: Mauritius

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand

    Northern America
    • SUBARCTIC AMERICA: Greenland
    • Canada, Mexico, United States

    Pacific
    • NORTH-CENTRAL PACIFIC: United States [Hawaii]

    Southern America
    • CARIBBEAN: West Indies
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Peru
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina, Chile, Uruguay


References:

  1. Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). URL: http://www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/cultural/Phleum_pratense_K/ target='_blank'
  2. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  3. Alderson, J. & W. C. Sharp. 1995. Grass varieties in the United States, U.S.D.A. Agric. Handb. 170, rev. ed. CRC Press. Note: Revised version of AH 170
  4. Ashikaga, K. et al. 2012. Evaluating the genotype × nitrogen fertilization interaction on the nutritive value of the first crop in timothy (Phleum pratense L.) clones. Grassland Sci. 58:37-41.
  5. Bor, N. L. 1960. The grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan.
  6. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  7. Demilly, D. et al. 1996. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 6. Note: GEVES-SNES, Beaucouzé, France
  8. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  9. Fedorov, A. A., ed. 1999-. Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions (Engl. transl.).
  10. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Phleum+pratense&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  11. Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource). Note: unknown in the country
  12. Gilbert, L. 2002. pers. comm.
  13. Grierson, A. J. C. & D. J. Long. 1984-. Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim.
  14. Hanson, C. G. & J. L. Manson. 1985. Bird seed aliens in Britain. Watsonia 15:237-252.
  15. Hitchcock, A. S. 1950. Manual of the grasses of the United States, ed. 2.
  16. Hoang, H.-D. et al. 1997. Additional notes to the checklist of Korean cultivated plants (5). Consolidated summary and indexes. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 44:367.
  17. Howell, C. J. & J. W. D. Sawyer. 2006. New Zealand naturalised vascular plant checklist
  18. Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening
  19. Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares. Note: adventive
  20. Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  21. International Seed Testing Association. 1982. A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2.
  22. Kartesz, J. T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Note: with two subspecies
  23. Koyama, T. 1987. Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions 202.
  24. Krasnoborov, I. M., ed. 2000-. Flora of Siberia (English translation)
  25. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  26. Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants. Kulturpflanze 34:117.
  27. Ohwi, J. 1965. Flora of Japan (Engl. ed.).
  28. Randall, R. P. 2007. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status.
  29. Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963-. Flora iranica.
  30. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  31. Seed Regulatory and Testing Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A. State noxious-weed seed requirements recognized in the administration of the Federal Seed Act (updated annually).
  32. Skvortsov, A. K., ed. 2006. Flora of the Lower Volga region 1:153-154.
  33. Soreng, R. J. et al. 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48:493.
  34. Stewart, A. V. et al. 2009. Genomic and geographic origins of Timothy (Phleum sp.) based on ITS and chloroplast sequences. Molecular breeding of forage and turf 71-80. Note: this study discussed the origin and distribution of 2x, 4x, 6x and 8x populations recognized in two subspecies
  35. Tanaka, T. et al. 2011. DNA profiling of seed parents and topcross tester and its application for yield improvement in Timothy (Phleum pratense L.). Crop Sci. (Madison) 51:612-620.
  36. Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966-. Flora of Iraq. Note: mentions
  37. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964-1980. Flora europaea. Note: with two subspecies
  38. Tzvelev, N. N. 1976. Zlaki SSSR
  39. Wagner, W. L. et al. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands (on-line resource).
  40. Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds
  41. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  42. 2018. Mid-Atlantic invasive plant species (on-line resource)

Check other web resources for Phleum pratense L. :

Images:


Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=28019. Accessed 13 October 2019.