Taxon: Phleum pratense L.

 
Genus: Phleum
Family: Poaceae (alt.Gramineae)
  Subfamily: Pooideae
      Tribe: Poeae
        Subtribe: Poinae
Nomen number: 28019
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:59. 1753
Name Verified on: 12-May-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is: Western Regional PI Station (W6)
Accessions: 843 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: erosion control (fide L. Gilbert, pers. comm. (2002))
  • Environmental: soil improver (fide L. Gilbert, pers. comm. (2002))
  • Animal food: fodder (fide Grass US; F Eur; Food Feed Crops US; Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Animal food: forage (fide Grass US; F Eur; Food Feed Crops US; Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (common cause of hay fever fide Dict Gard)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide State Noxweed Seed; Invasive Pl Spec)

Distributional Range:

    Native:

  • Africa

    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Morocco; Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Dagestan; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • China: China
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Buryatia, - Gorno-Altay, - Tuva, - Yakutia-Sakha, - Altay, - Krasnoyarsk, - Chita, - Irkutsk, - Kemerovo, - Kurgan, - Novosibirsk, - Omsk, - Tomsk, - Tyumen
    • Western Asia: Iran; Iraq; Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: India; Pakistan
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain

  • Naturalized:

  • Africa

    • Western Indian Ocean: Mauritius
  • Australasia

    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Northern America

    • : Canada; Mexico; United States
    • Subarctic America: Greenland
  • Pacific

    • North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
  • Southern America

    • Caribbean: West Indies
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Uruguay
    • Western South America: Peru

  • Cultivated:

  • Asia-Temperate

    • Eastern Asia: Japan
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan
  • Europe

    • Northern Europe: Finland
  • Northern America

    • : Canada

References:

  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). (AgroAtlas)
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on www.skud.info). 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Alderson, J. & W. C. Sharp Grass varieties in the United States, U.S.D.A. Agric. Handb. 170, rev. ed. 1995 (Grass VarUSA)
  • Ashikaga, K. et al. 2012. Evaluating the genotype × nitrogen fertilization interaction on the nutritive value of the first crop in timothy (Phleum pratense L.) clones Grassland Sci. 58:37-41.
  • Bor, N. L. The grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. 1960 (Grass BCIP)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Demilly, D. et al. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 6. 1996 (L Noms French ed6)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Fedorov, A. A., ed. Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions (Engl. transl.). 1999- (F Russia Eur Part)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource). (L Brasil Online)
  • Gilbert, L. 2002. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Grierson, A. J. C. & D. J. Long Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim. 1984- (F Bhutan)
  • Hanson, C. G. & J. L. Manson 1985. Bird seed aliens in Britain (Watsonia) 15:237-252.
  • Hitchcock, A. S. Manual of the grasses of the United States, ed. 2. 1950 (Grass US)
  • Hoang, H.-D. et al. 1997. Additional notes to the checklist of Korean cultivated plants (5). Consolidated summary and indexes Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 44:367.
  • Howell, C. J. & J. W. D. Sawyer New Zealand naturalised vascular plant checklist. 2006 (NZeal Nat Vasc Pl)
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares. 2008 (F ConoSur)
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) Australian plant common name database (on-line resource). (Aust Pl Common Names)
  • International Seed Testing Association A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2. 1982 (Mult Glossary Crops)
  • Kartesz, J. T. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1994 (L US Can ed2)
  • Koyama, T. 1987. Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions. 1987 (Grass Japan) 202.
  • Krasnoborov, I. M., ed. Flora of Siberia (English translation). 2000- (F Siberia)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants (Kulturpflanze) 34:117.
  • Ohwi, J. Flora of Japan (Engl. ed.). 1965 (F JapanOhwi)
  • Randall, R. P. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status. 2007 (Weed CRCAustralia)
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. 1963- (F Iran)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Seed Regulatory and Testing Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A. State noxious-weed seed requirements recognized in the administration of the Federal Seed Act (updated annually). (State Noxweed Seed)
  • Soreng, R. J. et al. 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48:493.
  • Stewart, A. V. et al. 2009. Genomic and geographic origins of Timothy (Phleum sp.) based on ITS and chloroplast sequences (Mol Breed Forag Turf) 71-80.
  • Tanaka, T. et al. 2011. DNA profiling of seed parents and topcross tester and its application for yield improvement in Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) Crop Sci. (Madison) 51:612-620.
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest Flora of Iraq. 1966- (F Iraq)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Tzvelev, N. N. Zlaki SSSR. 1976 (Grass USSR)
  • Wagner, W. L. et al. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands (on-line resource). (F Hawaii Online)
  • Weber, E. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. 2003 (Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)

Synonyms:

Check other web resources for Phleum pratense L. :

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