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Taxon: Brassica oleracea L. var. ramosa DC.

Genus: Brassica
Family: Brassicaceae (alt.Cruciferae)
Tribe: Brassiceae
Nomen number: 319631
Place of publication: Syst. nat. 2:583. 1821
Link to protologue:
  • • [or Brassica oleracea Thousand Head Kale Group]
  • • actually published as B. oleracea B. acephala α ramosa
Name Verified on: 08-May-2010 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 7 (2 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use), synonyms and invalid designations:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym, I invalid designation)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Animal food: forage
  • Human food: vegetable (a Spring crop grown mostly by hobbists)

Distributional Range:


    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Ethiopia (rare)

    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Ireland (rare), United Kingdom [Scotland (rare)]
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Belgium (rare), Germany (rare), Netherlands (rare)
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (rare), Portugal (rare)

    Southern America
    • CARIBBEAN: Haiti (rare)
    • BRAZIL: Brazil (rare)


  1. Bailey, L. H. 1922. The cultivated Brassicas. Gentes Herbarum 1:77.
  2. Dias, J. S. et al. 1994. Genetic diversity and taxonomy of Portuguese Tronchuda cabbage and Galega kale landraces using isozyme analysis. Euphytica 75:221-230. Note: Netherlands journal of plant breeding
  3. Dias, J. S. 1995. Genetic relationships of Portuguese coles and other close related Brassica genotypes using nuclear RFLPs. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 42:363-369.
  4. Divaret, I. et al. 1999. RAPD markers on seed bulks efficiently assess the genetic diversity of a Brassica oleracea L. collection. Theor. Appl. Genet. 98:1029-1035.
  5. Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage
  6. Encke, F. et al. 1993. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 14. Auflage
  7. Gladis, T. & K. Hammer. 2001. Nomenclatural notes on the Brassica oleracea-group. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 48:7-11. Note: as Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata convar. fruticosa var. ramosa
  8. Hammer, K. et al. 2013. The wild and the grown - Remarks about the botanical classification of Brassica. Acta Hort. 1005:49-59. Note: = Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata var. ramosa
  9. Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6
  10. Hegi, G. et al. 1986. Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa 4(1):446. Note: = cultivariety
  11. Jalas, J. & J. Suominen. 1972-. Atlas florae europaeae. Note: = Brassica oleracea subsp. fruticosa Metzg.
  12. Kresovich, S. et al. 1992. Characterization of genetic identities and relationships of Brassica oleracea L. via a random amplified polymorphic DNA assay. Theor. Appl. Genet. 85:190-196.
  13. Mansfeld, R. 1959. Die Kulturpflanze, Beiheft 2.
  14. McFerson, J. 1994. pers. comm. Note: re. common names
  15. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  16. Santos, M. R. & J. S. Dias. 2004. Evaluation of a core collection of Brassica oleracea accessions for resistance to white rust of crucifers (Albugo candida) at the cotyledon stage. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 51:713-722.
  17. Snogerup, S. 1980. Chapter 7. The wild forms of the Brassica oleracea group (2n=18) and their possible relations to the cultivated ones. Brassica crop and wild allies, biology and breeding. 121-132. Note: Japan Science Press, Tokyo.
  18. Song, K. et al. 1988. Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). 1. Genome evolution of diploid and amphidiploid species. Theor. Appl. Genet. 75:784-794.
  19. Song, K. et al. 1988. Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). 2. Preliminary analysis of subspecies within B. rapa (syn. campestris) and B. oleracea. Theor. Appl. Genet. 76:593-600.
  20. Song, K. et al. 1990. Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). 3. Genome relationships in Brassica and related genera and the origin of B. oleracea and B. rapa (syn. campestris). Theor. Appl. Genet. 79:497-506.
  21. Treuren van, R. & N. Baas. 2008. Perennial kales: collection rationalization and genetic relatedness to other Brassica oleracea crop types. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 55:203-210.
  22. Warwick, S. I. et al. 2006. Brassicaceae: Species checklist and database on CD-Rom. Pl. Syst. Evol. 259:249-258. Note: lists in database
  23. Zeven, A. C. et al. 1989. Diploids and natural autotetraploids in the predominantly vegetatively propagated Brassica. Euphytica 41:59-64. Note: Netherlands journal of plant breeding
  24. Zeven, A. C. et al. 1998. Are the duplicates of perennial kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. ramosa DC.) true duplicates as determined by RAPD analysis?. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 45:105-111.

Check other web resources for Brassica oleracea L. var. ramosa DC. :

  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=319631. Accessed 10 July 2020.